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Chapter 2

SMG MK 445 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Self-Actualization, Goal Setting, Old Age

Course Code
SMG MK 445
Didem Kurt

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Chapter 2 Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity
2.1 Consumer Motivation and Its Effects
Motivation: an inner state of activation that provides energy needed to achieve a goal
Motivated reasoning: processing information in a way that allows consumers to reach
the conclusion that they want to reach
Ex: confirmation bias when consumers will look for information that supports
their decision rather than look for the right information
Ex: when we see our self esteem at stake of when we are desperate or want to
avoid a negative outcome
Felt involvement: the consumer’s experience of being motivated with respect to a
product or service or decisions and actions about these
2.1 a High Effort Behavior
Motivation drives the final behaviors that bring you closer to a goal but it also makes you
want to spend more time and energy in preparing for it
If you’re motivated to buy a new smartphone you will be motivated to earn more
money to buy that phone
Consumers will try to match the anticipated effort to actual effort
If its to simple then they will try to complicate it by putting in extra effort,
if it is too complicated they will simplify it
2.1 b High Effort Information Processing and Decision Making
When consumers are highly motivated to achieve a goal they are more likely to pay more
attention to it, understand it, evaluate information and remember it for later use
2.1 c Felt Involvement
Final outcome that evokes a psychological state
Types of Involvement
Enduring involvement: long term interest in an offering, activity or decision
Car enthusiasts
Situational (temporary) involvement: temporary interest in an offering, activity
or decision, usually caused by situational circumstances
Car buying process because they need a new car, but involvement will
decrease after they purchase
Cognitive involvement: interest in thinking about and learning information inline
with an offering, activity or decision
Winter sports fans interested in learning about curling during the olympics
Affective involvement: interest in expending emotional energy and evoking deep
feelings about an offering, activity, decision

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Someone who listens to music experiences emotions
Objects of Involvement
Product or retail category involves experiences
Involvement with a brand - you view the brand as an extension of you and feel
passionate towards the brand
Involved with ads - that are interesting or relevant to you
Involved with a medium (tv, radio)
Response involvement: interest in certain decisions and behaviors
Ex: consumers are highly involved in deciding between brands
It is important to specify the object of involvement
We are motivated to behave, process information and engage in good
decision making when we feel things are personally relevant and consider
serious involvement when using, buying or disposing of them
Ex: where to go to college
We also are motivated to think deeply about issues that we believe we
have to justify or explain our decisions
2.2 What Determines Motivation?
If something is
1. Personally relevant
2. Consistent with their self concept, values, needs goals, emotions, self control
3. Risky
4. Moderately inconsistent with their prior attitudes
2.2 a Personal Relevance
Personal relevance: something that has direct bearing on the self and can have
consequences on our lives
Ex: when our cell phone battery is being recalled
2.2. B consistency with Self-Concept
Self concept: our view of who we are
Inconsistency with self concept can make you feel bad
When self concept is threatened consumers will take action to fix their ego
Identifying with a brand and making an emotional connection with it can
strengthen brand loyalty and make those consumers less price sensitive toward the
2.2 c Values
Values: beliefs about what is right or wrong, important, good or bad
Ex: pursuing a college degree

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2.2 d Needs
Need: internal state of tension, when there is a discrepancy between your ideal state and
desired physical or psychological state
Ex: your stomach feels uncomfortable so you decide it’s time to eat
You are motivated to direct your behavior toward certain outcomes
Once you are motivated to fulfill a need other objects that are unrelated seem unattractive
Which needs do consumers experience?
1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Social
4. Egotistic
5. Self actualization
Lower levels generally need to be satisfied before higher levels are satisfied but needs are
not always ordered exactly in this hierarchy
Ex: people can paint on an empty stomach
The ordering of needs may not be consistent across cultures
Hierarchy ignores the intensity of needs and resulting effect on motivation
Types of Needs
1. Social and personal needs
a. Social needs: externally directed and relate other individuals
b. Personal needs: achievement is not based on other people, our need for
sleep, novelty and control and understanding
2. Functional, symbolic, hedonic needs
a. Functional needs: may be social or non social
i. A car has a backup camera because it appeals to safety needs
b. Symbolic needs: relate to how perceive ourselves, how others perceive us
and how we relate to others
i. Louboutins express their social standing
c. Hedonic needs: relate to sensory pleasure
i. Luxury shopping areas for the upscale retail experience and eye
catching ambiance
3. Needs for cognition and stimulation
a. Need for cognition - need to enjoy being involved in mentally taxing
i. Reading and deeply processing information
ii. Low need is watching tv
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