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Chapter 4

SMG MK 445 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Echoic Memory, Episodic Memory, Implicit Memory

Course Code
SMG MK 445
Didem Kurt

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Memory and Knowledge
4.1 What is Memory?
Consumer memory: persistence of learning over time, via the storage and retrieval of
information can occur consciously or unconsciously
Retrieval: process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored in memory
4.1 a Sensory Memory
Sensory memory: ability to temporarily store input from all our five senses
Echoic memory: sensory memory of things we hear
Iconic memory: sensory memory of things we see
Olfactory memory
4.1 b Working Memory
Working memory (WM): portion of memory where we encode or interpret incoming
information and keep it available for further processing
Where most of our conscious information processing takes place
Requires attention to retain information
Can take several forms
1. Discursive processing
a. Ex: when we represent an object - an apple with the word
2. Imagery processing
When motivation, ability and opportunity is low, working memory might consist of a
simple reproduction of an item
When MAO is high, consumers use elaborated imagery processing to engage in
daydreams, fantasies etc.
4.1 c Long Term Memory
Long Term Memory (LTM): where information is permanently stored for later use
2 major types
1. Episodic (autobiographical) memory: represents knowledge about ourselves,
what happened in our past, emotions and sensations tied to past experiences
(primarily sensory)
a. Can influence how products and services are evaluated
b. Form of operant conditioning: one event produces a lasting memory and
a behavior change
2. Semantic memory: facts and general knowledge unrelated to specific episodes
in our life history
a. Ex: we know that cola is liquid
4.1 d Explicit Memory, Implicit Memory and Processing Fluency
Memory can be explicit or implicit
Explicit memory: when consumers are consciously aware that they are remembering
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Implicit memory: when consumers aren’t consciously aware that they remember
Processing fluency is key b/c it leads to feelings of familiarity
Much of our memory is implicit
Exposure to brands via advertising an other marketing stimuli enhance perceptual
fluency and makes it easier for people to recognize brands and process information
about it and leads to more favorable attitudes
4.1 e How Memory is Enhanced
Explicit memory expresses itself in 2 forms
1. Recognition: occurs when we remember what we have seen heard etc after
being re-exposed to the stimulus again
2. Recall: when we remember we have seen, heard etc. without being re-exposed
to the stimuli again
Several techniques to improve working memory
1. Chunks: groups of items that are processed as a unit
2. Rehearsal: actively and consciously interact with the material that we are trying
to remember, by silently repeating it or thinking about it
3. Recirculation: when you encounter it repeatedly
4. Elaboration: processing information at deeper levels of meaning
a. Is not effective over a long period of time
4.2 Knowledge Content, Structure and Flexibility
Knowledge content: information we have learned and stored in our memory about
Knowledge structure: how we organize our knowledge in our memory
4.2 a Knowledge Content:Schemas and Scripts
Scripts are a form of procedural knowledge: knowledge about how to do things with
the objects and people and are related to episodic memory
Schemas and associative networks
Schema: group of associations or associative networks linked to an object or
person - it is a concept
Product category schema, schemas for brands, self schema
Spreading of activation: because associations are connected, activating one part of
the associative network leads to a spread to other parts of the network
If the consumer’s motivation and opportunity to process information are high the
number of activated links can also be high
Spreading of activation can happen consciously
Priming: the increased sensitivity to certain concepts and associations due to
prior experience based on implicit memory
Associations in schemas can be described along several dimensions
1. Attributes
2. Benefits
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