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Chapter 5

SMG MK 445 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Communication Source, The Foundations, Emotional Contagion

Course Code
SMG MK 445
Didem Kurt

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Attitudes Based on High Effort
5.1 What are Attitudes?
Attitude: is an overall evaluation that expresses how much we like or dislike something,
attitudes are learned and persist over time, they reflect our evaluation of something
based on our associations with it
5.1 a The Importance of Attitudes
1. They guide our thoughts - cognitive function
2. They influence our feelings - affective function
3. They affect our behavior - conative function
5.1 b The Characteristics of Attitudes
Attitudes are described in five main characteristics
1. Favorability: how much we like or dislike something
2. Attitude accessibility: how easily and readily an attitude can be retrieved from
a. Ex: how did you like the movie last night
3. Attitude confidence: how strong your attitude is
4. Persistence: variance in endurance
5. Resistance: subsequent to changes - if you are brand loyal it is easier to resist
and not change attitude
6. Ambivalence: when we have strong positive evaluations of one aspect of a
brand and strong negative evaluations of other aspects of the brand
a. Someone else’s opinion will influence us more when our attitudes are
5.1 c Forming and Changing Attitudes
The foundations of attitudes
Attitudes are based on the cognition (thoughts)
So attitudes are affected by our external sources - ads, facebook,
Attitudes are based on emotions
You can see something as favorable if it feels good or seems right
Based on observing and vicariously experiencing emotion
Ex: if you see someone on a skateboard having fun, you will also
think you would have fun if you did it too
Includes both the hedonic aspect(experience of product) and utilitarian
aspect(function of product)
The role of effort in attitude formation and change
Extensive thinking or elaboration consumers put in, effects their attitude
formation and change processes
If someone’s MAO is high

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Central - route processing: attitude formation and change process when
effort is high
If someone’s MAO is low
Peripheral - route processing: attitude formation and change when
effort is low or low involvement
When consumers devote a lot of effort in processing info, markets can influence
them cognitively or affectively
5.2 The Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes
How thoughts are related to attitudes when consumers put in a lot of time to process
information (5)
1. Direct or Imagined Experience
a. Can help consumers form positive or negative attitudes
b. You are likely to form an attitude after test driving a new car
c. You will have a more favorable image of a car if you focus on the positive
aspects of buying and using it
2. Reasoning by analogy or category
a. Form attitudes by considering how similar a product is to other products or to a
particular product category
b. Ex: if you never tried a certain starbucks drink but you think it’ll taste like another
one of their drinks that will lead you to have a positive attitude about it
3. Values-Driven Attitudes
a. Attitudes are generated by ones values
b. Ex: if environmental protection is one of your core values and you are buying
new sneakers that are made from recycled items you will form a favorable
attitude toward them
4. Social Identity Based- Attitude Generation
a. Social identity can play role in forming attitude toward product or brand
b. Form positive attitudes toward brand or product that enables you to express your
personal identity
5. Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation
a. Form attitudes based on cognitive response
b. Cognitive responses: thoughts a person has when they are exposed to a
communication which can take forms of recognition, revaluation, association,
image or ideas
Cognitive Responses to Communications
Consumers put in a lot of effort when they respond to a message - enough to generate
Counter Arguments (CA): thoughts that express disagreement with the message
Support arguments (SA):thoughts that express agreement with the message
Source derogations (SD): thoughts that discount or attack the message source
Belief discrepancy: creates more counter arguments because consumers want to
maintain their existing belief and do so by arguing against the message
Expectancy-Value Models
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