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Chapter 6

SMG MK 469 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Perceived Control, Q Score

Course Code
SMG MK 469
Deborah Utter

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Source Factors pg. 186-200
Person involved in communicating a marketing message directly or indirectly
Direct source:
Someone who delivers a message and or endorses a product or service
Indirect source:
Model doesn’t actually deliver a message but draws attention to or enhances the
appearance of an ad
Companies are careful when selecting people to deliver their message - they will spend
lots of money to get a specific person to endorse their brand
Marketers try to pick people whose traits will maximize the message influence
The source can be attractive, knowledgeable, popular etc.
3 basic categories of source attributes
1. Credibility
2. Attractiveness
3. Power
Source Credibility
Credibility: the extent to which the recipient sees the source as having relevant
knowledge, skill or experience and trusts the source to give unbiased, objective
There are two important dimensions to credibility
1. Expertise
2. Trustworthiness
It’s more persuasive when someone has expertise, the source has to also be
trustworthy, honest, ethical and believable
Internalization: Information from a credible source influences beliefs, opinions, attitudes
and behavior which occurs when the receiver adopts the opinion of the credible
communicator since they believe information from the source is accurate
Once the receiver interalizes a belief or attitude, it becomes integrated into their
belief system and may be maintained even after the source of the message is
Apply Expertise
Sales people are well trained
Sales reps are recruited with highly technical backgrounds
Spokespeople are chosen because of their knowledge, experience and expertise in a
particular area
Endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts
Ex: dove says that over a certain amount of dermatologists would recommend their
Apply Trustworthiness

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Target audience has to find the source as an expert but also trustworthy
Finding celebrities and other figures with a trustworthy image is hard because they fear
the potential impact it could have on their image
Various techniques are used to increase perception that their sources are trustworthy
Hidden cameras shows that people are not paid
Disguised brands are compared
Overheard conversation technique
Publicity - usually perceived as unbiased and thus more credible
Using Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople
Use the company president or CEO as the spokesperson for the firm's advertising
CEO is the expression of the company commitment to quality and customer service - it
can help create an identity and personality for the company and brand
Advertising experts question this because sometimes the ego rather than logic is the
reason for their use
Concern is that creating an image around the CEO can make the corporate brand image
more vulnerable if the individual becomes involved in a controversy
A CEO who becomes popular can shift attention to the brand and away from the
advertising message
If a firm’s image becomes too closely tied to a popular leader there can be problems if
that person leaves the company
Limitations of Credible Sources
High credibility source is not always an asset, nor is a low credibility source always a
A very credible source is more effective when message recipients are not in favor of the
position advocated in the message, but a very credible source is less important when the
audience has a neutral position
Low credibility source may be as effective as high credibility source because of the
sleeper effect: persuasiveness of a message increases with the passage of time
But it is failed to demonstrate the presence of this effect
Applying Liability: Using Celebrities
Marketers think celebrities having stopping power: they draw attention to advertising
messages in a very cluttered media environment
They think a popular celebrity will favorably influence consumers feelings, attitudes and
purchase behavior and they believe celebrities can enhance the perceptions of the
product in terms of image and or performance
Overshadowing the product
Consumers may focus their attention on the celebrity and fail to notice or recall the brand
or advertising message: vampire effect
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