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Chapter 5

SMG MK 469 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Communication Source, Communication Problems, Social Network


Department
Marketing
Course Code
SMG MK 469
Professor
Deborah Utter
Chapter
5

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A Basic Model of Communication (pg. 145-158)
The Nature of Communication
Communication
Passing of information, exchange of ideas, process of establishing commonness
or oneness of thoughts between a sender and receiver
There must be some common thinking between the two parties and the
information must be passed from one person to the other
Success of the process depends on the nature of the message, interpretation
from the audience, environment in which it is received
Language is one of the major barriers to effective communication
Basic Model of Communication
Two major participants in the communication process
1. Sender
2. Receiver
Two major communication tools
1. Message
2. Channel
Four major communication functions and processes
1. Encoding
2. Decoding
3. Response
4. Feedback
Noise is any extraneous factor in the system that can interfere with the process and work
against effective communication
Source Encoding
Source (sender)
Person or organization that has information to share with another person or
group of people
Can be an individual or non personal entity (like an organization or company)
They have impact on company’s advertising and delivering the message and
influencing how well it’s received by the targeted audience
The communication process begins when the source selects words, symbols, pictures
and the like to represent the message that will be delivered to the receiver
Encoding
Involves putting thoughts, ideas or information into a symbolic form
Sender’s goal is to encode the message in such a way that it will be
understood by the receiver
The words, signs or symbols have to be familiar to the target
audience
Message
Message

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Led by the encoding process
Contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey
Can be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written or symbolic
Put into a transmittable form that is appropriate for the channel of communication
being used
Communication effectiveness is learned by the impression or imag the ad
creates
Content of the messages they send to consumer and structure and design of message
Content = information and or meaning from the message
Structure and design = way the message is put together in order to deliver the
information or intended meaning
Channel
How communication travels from source or sender to receiver
The internet has characteristics of both non personal and personal forms of
communication
Nonpersonal because consumers are just consuming the information that is
online and there’s no personal contact between them and the companies that
give out the information
Personal because consumers can interact with marketers online and share
information with one another through social media
2 types of channels of communication
1. Nonpersonal
a. Carry a message without direct interpersonal contact between the sender
and receiver
b. Also referred to as mass media or mass communications
i. Since the message is directed to more than one person and is
sent out to multiples at a time
c. Consists of two major types
i. Print: billboards, magazines, newspapers
ii. Broadcast: tv and radio
2. Personal
a. Personal channels involve direct communication between two or more
people, they can use face to face, email or social media interactions
b. A major advantage is that you can tailor the message to the individual or
audience, you can also receive immediate feedback
c. Members of social network help with Word of Mouth: influence that
involves informal communication among consumers about products and
services
i. Word of mouth discussion using buzz marketing techniques
ii. Buzz marketing: few names used as word of mouth
communication, consumer generated marketing and viral
marketing
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1. Is different from traditional WOM because of its systematic
and organized efforts to encourage people to speak
favorably about a brand
2. Use contest to encourage consumers to create user
generated content, vote on user generated content and
share it with their friends
Viral Marketing
Spreading and promoting marketing relevant messages through the help and
cooperation of individual consumers
Difficult to achieve as the outcomes are affected by many factors that marketers
can’t control
Another important aspect: Seeding
Identifying and choosing initial group of consumers who will star the
spread of the message
Seeding strategy must be developed - how many initial consumers or
seeds should we select and who are the right consumers to start the viral
process
Advertising agencies and other companies that specialize in working with clients
to develop viral marketing programs
Web communities so consumers can chat about their product
experiences online
3 major factors that affect the success of a viral marketing program
1. Message characteristics
a. The content and creative design of a viral message
b. Is the information entertaining, engaging, humorous and
informative
2. Individual sender or receiver characteristics
a. Demographics, personality traits, motivation for sharing content
and messages
b. Two most powerful drivers of viral success
i. Psychological response - how it makes you feel
ii. Social motivation - why do you want to share it
1. 10 motivations for social sharing (opinion seeking,
shared passion, conversation starting, social utility,
self-expression, social in real life, social good,
zeitgeist, authority, cool hunting)
3. Social network characteristics
Integrating Word of Mouth with IMC
Most conversations about products and services are happening offline
Second is phone conversations and then is email, chat and other online channels
WOM included various IMC tools used for a brand, print, tv ads, websites and
point of sale displays and promotions
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