Chapter 3 and 4 Examples and Notes
Diagram the argument.
#9: “(1) Acause-and-effect relationship is drawn [by those opposed to pornography]
between men viewing pornography and men attacking women, especially in the form of
rape. (2) But studies and experts disagree as to whether any relationship exists between
pornography and violence, between images and behavior. (3) Even the pro-censorship
Meese Commission Report admitted that the data connecting pornography to violence was
Conclusion (C): a cause-and-effect relationship between viewing pornography and
attacking women does not exist.
(1) + (2) (C)
#9: According to the text, in most fields, what are the two minimal prerequisites for being
considered an expert?
1. Education and training from reputable institutions or programs in the relevant field
(usually evidenced by degrees or certificates)
2. Experience in making reliable judgments in the field (generally the more years of
experience the better)
#13: What are two factors that can give us good reason to doubt the reliability of personal
1. Impairment of our faculties
#18: What is the availability error?
Relying on evidence because it’s memorable or striking (meaning psychologically
available), not because it’s trustworthy.
#6:Why are appeals to the person fallacious?
Appeal to person: rejecting a claim by criticizing the person who makes it rather than the
claim itself. This type of argument is fallacious because they attempt to discredit a claim
by appealing to something that’s irrelevant to it: a person’s character, motives, or
personal circumstances. Claims must be judged on their own merits. Even if a person’s
character is dubious, we are left with no reaso