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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Examples and Notes.docx

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CAS PH 160
Tian Cao

Homework Assignment 6 Heather Buja PH160, SectionA4 Chapter 8 Examples and Notes 8.1 #3, #9 8.3 #2 8.4 #3 8.6 #5 8.7 #3, #6 8.8 #5, #6 8.9 Follow instructions to identify errors relevant for 8.8 #5 8.10 #5, #10 8.1: (1) Identify target group, sample, and relevant property; (2) indicate whether the argument is strong or weak; (3) if weak, indicate whether the problem is sample that’s too small, not representative, or both #3: Doctors used to think that anti-arrhythmic drugs were the cure for irregular heartbeats. They overprescribed these drugs and fifty thousand patients died. Doctors used to believe that the cure for ulcers was a bland diet, but that turned out to be wrong too. Every new treatment we see these days sounds great. But history tells us that they will all turn out to be worthless. (1) Target group: Doctors Sample: Doctors who failed to cured irregular heartbeats because they provided a false cure, doctors who incorrectly believed a bland diet cured ulcers Relevant Property: wrong (failed) cures or treatments (2) Weak Argument (3) Sample size is too small. There are only two incidents cited where doctors came up with a wrong treatment for such diseases and there are many right cures that doctors have found, as well as wrong one for the vast amount of diseases that exist. #9: Two hundred samples of water taken from many sites along the Charles River show unsafe concentrations of toxic chemicals. Obviously the water in the Charles River is unsafe. (1) Target group: Water in the Charles River Sample: 200 samples of water taken from the Charles River Relevant Property: unsafe (toxic) (2) Strong Argument 8.3: (1) Determine whether the poll results offer strong support for the pollster’s conclusion, and, if they don’t, (2) specify the source of the problem (sample too small, unrepresentative, nonrandom sampling) #2: Anita conducts a survey to determine ifAmericans are willing to support the arts by contributing money directly to local theater groups. One night she and her assistants interview five hundred people who are attending a performance of a musical at the city’s Homework Assignment 6 Heather Buja PH160, SectionA4 biggest theater. To help ensure random selection, they purposely select every other patron they encounter for interviewing. There is only one interview question: “Are you willing to support the arts by giving money to local theater groups?” Ninety-four percent of the interviewees say yes.Anita later reports that a large majority ofAmericans are willing to support the arts by giving money to local theater groups. (1) Poll results do not supportAnita’s conclusion (2) The sample is unrepresentative. The target group isAmericans. However,Anita is only surveyingAmericans who go to that theater, and it is safe to assume that if they are going to a theater and paying money, they are going to be inclined to support local theater groups. Not allAmericans go to theaters. She is also failing to represent the different demographics of America.Also, her sampling is not random (I think), random sampling is not every other person, but should be determined by random methods. 8.4: Indicate which conclusions from the accompanying list would be strongly supported by the premise given.Assume that all statements are true. #3: Four out of five of the college’s English majors hate anything written by William Faulkner A. Eighty percent of the college’s English majors hate anything written by William Faulkner. 8.6: Evaluate each of the following passages and indicate whether it contains (a) an argument by analogy, (b) a literary analogy, or (c) an enumerative induction. If the passage contains an argument by analogy, indicate the total number of things (instances) being compared, the relevant similarities mentioned or implied, the conclusion, and whether the argument is strong or weak. #5: Hume’s passage: Argument Type: (a) Argument by analogy. The total number of things being compared: (2) the world and human-made machines Relevant similarities mentioned/implied: 3: (1) the world is like a machine divided into many lesser machines, (2) said machines are adjusted to each other with accuracy, (3) these machines are an adaptation of means to ends. Conclusion: There exists a deity who has a mind similar to the human mind and human intelligence. Strength: Weak. *Note: I thought this argument was basically saying the world has the same qualities in terms of design as machines designed by humans (I mentioned these qualities in the third part of my answer).And since machines have a designer that designed them this way, the world must have a designer similar to humans. However, I think the argument is weak for two reasons: (1) the world is natural, while machines are man made and (2) I think this proves that provided a deity exists, then this deity is similar to the human Homework Assignment 6 Heather Buja
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