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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Presidency.pdf

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Boston University
Political Science
CAS PO 111
Graham Wilson

Chapter 12: Presidency Sunday, December 15, 2013 4:47 PM I. The Constitutional Basis of Presidential Power A) Initial Conceptions of the Presidency • Follows the checks-and-balances philosophy B) The Powers of the President • Requirements and responsibilities of a President is in Article II ○ US born citizen ○ 35+ years old ○ Lived in the US for at least 14 years ○ The Constitution left the President’s power vague ○ Serve as administrative head of the nation  Executive power ○ Act as commander in chief of the military  Highest ranking officer ○ Veto legislation  Can be overrode with ⅔ vote in Congress ○ Make treaties  Need “Advice and Consent” of ⅔ Senate  “Receive Ambassadors” and recognize countries II. The Expansion of Presidential Power A) Formal Powers • Increase use of vetoes • Veto threats makes Congress to modify to avoid • More active role in policy agenda • Modern wars (Afghanistan) had no official declaration by Congress B) The Inherent Powers • Powers not specified by the Constitution but inferred • Congress either support or restrict the claim ○ Bush wanted to commision Afghan combatants → Supreme Court deemed it unconstitutional → Congress authorized • When a President establishes a new power, he leaves a permanent expansion legacy for his successors ○ Lincoln during Civil War • Executive orders: Can create or modify laws and public policies, without the direct approval of Congress ○ Eisenhower in Little Rock, Arkansas, Bush in FISA and wiretapping • Unitary executive: President’s inherent powers allow him to overrule congressional grants of independent authority to agencies (ambiguous expanded powers theory) C) Congressional Delegation of Power • Presidential powers grow when the President successfully challenge Congress • Delegation of Powers: Congress gives the executive branch the additional authority needed to address new problems ○ Congress gave FDR extra powers during The Great Depression ○ Nixon was able to do a sudden wage freeze to stop inflation without warning ○ War Powers Resolution 1973: war powers belonged to the legislative branch  Ended President’s ability to pursue armed conflict without Congress III. The Executive Branch Establishments A) The Executive Office of the President • Chief of staff usually has broad authority and independence • Chief of staff usually has broad authority and independence • Executive Office of the President: President’s executive aids and their staffs ○ FDR: Competitive management style, advisers with different points of view ○ Eisenhower: Clear hierarchical staff model ○ Clinton: Loose staff structure with more access to the President B) The Vice President • 25th Amendment: VP takes over the presidency in the event of death, disability, impeachment and or resignation in the term C) The Cabinet • Cabinet: Group of presidential advisers that heads of the executive departments ○ Has become large ○ Each member has limited areas of expertise ○ Presidents choose to balance out his cabinet (ethic, color, gender, etc) ○ Modern Presidents do not rely on his cabinet ○ Presidents tries to choose cabinet members that agree with their agenda IV. Presidential Leadership A) Presidential Character • Lyndon Johnson: Vietnam and his insecurities about his masculinity • Richard Nixon: Exaggerated paranoia • Bill Clinton: Untrustworthy and immoral but he overcame the scandal B) The President’s Power to Persuade • “Presidential power is the power to persuade” • Ability to bargain, deal with adversaries and choosing priorities • Pr
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