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CAS PO 111 (17)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 The Bureaucracy.pdf

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Political Science
CAS PO 111
Graham Wilson

Chapter 13: The Bureaucracy Sunday, December 15, 2013 4:46 PM I. Organization Matters • Bureaucracy: Large complex organization in which employees have specific responsibilities and work within a hierarchy of authority ○ Bureaucrats: Employees of a bureaucracy A) The Development of the Bureaucratic State • Am. think the gov’t is too big but it is proportionally smaller than Western democracies • It has grown tremendously over the 20th Century ○ Society has grown more complex (ie. NASA) ○ Businesses need regulation (ie. “Sugar trust”) ○ Gov’t responsibility of welfare (ie. Social Security) B) Can We Reduce the Size of Government? • Gov’t is unpopular to Americans ○ People want smaller gov’t that is more efficient ○ Budget cuts would hinder gov’t programs that many rely on II. Bureaus and Bureaucrats A) The Organization of Government a) Departments • Biggests units of the executive branch covering broad areas of gov’t responsibilities ○ Cabinet Departments: State, Treasury, Defense, Interior, Agriculture, Justice, Commerce, Labor, Health, Human Services, Housing and Urban Department, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, and Homeland Security  Each are broken down into subsidiary agencies, bureaus and offices b) Independent Agencies • Executive agencies that are not part of a cabinet department ○ CIA is directly under the President’s control • Regulatory commissions: Agencies of the executive branch that control or direct the economy in some way ○ Presidents do not have direct control ○ Protects consumers from bad business practices and goods c) Government Corporations • Agencies that perform services to the public such as the USPS B) The Civil Service • Appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made to ensure that gov’t jobs are filled on the basis of merit and that they are not fired for political reasons • Pendleton Act established the Civil Service Commission ○ To reduce patronage and fill jobs with merit C) Presidential Control over the Bureaucracy • Some Presidential appointments need Senate approvals • Even with interest group preference constraints and statue requirements, presidents have considerable influence over agency policymaking • When a president is facing a Congress controlled by an opposite party, he faces more constraints than if they were the same party III. Administrative Policymaking: The Formal Processes A) Administrative Discretion • Latitude the Congress gives agencies to make policy in the spirit of their legislative mandate • A committee can punish an agency by cutting its budget • Congress does not have all the time to make all policy decision
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