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CAS PO 111 (17)
Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Global Policy.pdf

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Boston University
Political Science
CAS PO 111
Graham Wilson

Chapter 19: Global Policy Sunday, December 15, 2013 5:41 PM I. Making Foreign Policy: The Constitutional Context ○ Foreign policy: General plan followed by a nation in defendingand advancing its national interests,especially its security against foreign threats  InternationalLiberals □ Favor: Internationalgov't that protectsthe environment and conditions of workers, immigrants, and children in foreign countries □ Oppose: National tariffs, import quotas, gov't subsidies to national businesses  InternationalCommunitarians □ Favor: Requiring US agencies to follow policies that protect the environment and promote conditions of workers, immigrants, and children abroad □ Favor: National tariffs, import quotas,gov't subsidies to national businesses  InternationalLibertarians □ Oppose: Other nations monitoringhuman rights conditionsin the US; puttingUS forces under internationalcontrol □ Oppose: National tariffs, import quotas, gov't subsidies to national businesses  InternationalConservatives □ Oppose: Other nations monitoringhuman rights conditionsin the US; puttingUS forces under internationalcontrol □ Favor: National tariffs, import quotas,gov't subsidies to national business A. ConstitutionalBases of Presidential Authority in Foreign Policy ○ Executive in Article II gives the president power over foreign policy  Commander in chief of the armed forces  Power to make treaties (Approval of the Senate)  AppointsUS Ambassadors and the heads of executive (Approval of the Senate)  Receives or denies ambassadors from other countries B. ConstitutionalBases of Congressional Authority in Foreign Policy ○ Congress is empowered to:  Legislate  Declare war  Raise revenue and dispense funds  Support,maintain, govern, and regulate the army and navy  Call out the state militias to repel invasions  Regulate commerce with foreign nations  Define and punish ○ Senate is required to:  Give advice and consent to treaties made by the president  Give advice and consent to the appointmentof ambassadors and various other public officials involved in foreign policy  Can break treaties; presidentsmade treaties a. The Senate and Major Treaties a. The Senate and Major Treaties  Wilson (Idealistic, internationalliberal) faced Senate's disapproval of the League of Nationsin 1919  FDR and Churchill created the United Nations □ By the time Truman had to win approval, US had already accepted internationalinvolvement  Clinton's 1999 ComprehensiveNuclear Test Ban Treaty failed even though all other arms control treaties have been signed b. Skirting the Senate Through Executive Agreements  Executive agreement: A pact between the heads of two countries □ Have the power of treaties; do not need Senate approval  Has been outnumberingtreaties □ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  Proclamation: An official declaration or statement of action or recognition □ Mother's Day C. ConstitutionalRoots of Statutory Powers in Foreign Policy ○ Discretionary funds: Large sums of cash that may be spent on unforeseen needs to further the national interest ○ Transfer authority:Reprogramming of funds, allowance of money that was meant for another program ○ Executive branch also has control over the disposal of excess stocks, surplus and unused equipment  CIA is the beneficiary of excess stock ○ War Powers Resolution 1973: Required that president "consult" with Congress in "every possible instance" before involving US troops; deployed troops may not stay for more than 60 days without congressional approval  Congress was unsupportiveof Bush's activity in Afghanistan II. Making Foreign Policy: Organization and Cast A. The Departmentof State ○ Secretary of The State is the head of the State Department;leader adviser in foreign policy ○ Civil Service Exam ○ Lacks strong domestic constituency to exert pressure to support the policies B. The Department of Defense ○ Replaced the War Department and Department of the Navy ○ America expanded peacetime military ○ Civilian leaders in the military branches C. The NationalSecurity Council ○ Group of advisers who help the president mold an approach to foreign policy with domestic, foreign and military affairs relating to national security D. The Intelligence Community ○ Intelligence Community: 16 agencies in the executive branch that conduct the various intelligence activities that make up the total US national intelligence effort  Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)  Departmentof Defense (DOD) □ National Security Agency (NSA) □ National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) □ Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) □ Army □ Army □ Navy □ Marine Corps □ Coast Guard □ Air Force □ 80% of the Intelligence is controlled by the DOD a. The Director of National Intelligence  Coordinates all intelligence activities  Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 □ Stripped the title of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from the head of CIA □ The new Director of National Intelligence assumed the roles of the DCI and became the principal adviser to the president and the NSC b. The Central Intelligence Agency  Vague clause that allows many covert activities  Ended the CIA program that assassinated terrorists c. The National Security Agency  Uses super-computers,satellites and other high tech equipment for foreign electronic surveillance E. Other Parts of the Foreign Policy Bureaucracy ○ Agency for International Development(AID) ○ Departmentof Agriculture
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