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Chapter 7

Birkland Chapter 7 Policies and Policy Types.pdf

3 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
CAS PO 331
Kate Krimmel

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Birkland Chapter 7: Policies and Policy Types Saturday, January 18, 2014 10:22 AM I. What is a "Policy"? ○ Policy is a statementby the gov't of what it intendsto do  Rules, laws, and judicial decisions  Lack of definitive statementis an implicit policy □ Right to education, healthcare II. Codifying and Publicizing Policies ○ Levels of policies and publication  Constitutional;highly visible and hard to amend (2/3 of each House and Senate and 3/4 of state legislatures) ○ Once a law is enacted, they are published in the Federal Register  The most important ones are codified in the Code of Federal Regulations □ All laws are published after public comments are taken on the Federal Register  The public criticizes that there are too many regulationsbut the Federal Register serves as a transparency of the gov't to the public ○ Most regulations begin with "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking"that alerts people of the possibility of a new regulations and the commentsare organized on the Federal Register ○ Regulationscan have an implication on needy people  TemporaryAssistancefor Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition AssistanceProgram (SNAP) ○ Regulationson street-level bureaucrats  People at the frontline of public service; police, teachers and social workers that affect regulation management □ Security screeners after 9/11 becamemore thorough  Laws can change the behaviors of the bureaucrats □ After Mapp v. Ohio, police officers have been altering their testimonies of evidence □ Police interest and the decision interests conflict; priority is to arrest and collect evidence, not protect the suspects' civil rights  Laws can also alter "purposive behaviors" □ Security screeners targeting Middle Eastern travelers ○ Case Study: An Example of the RegulatoryProcess  After the crash of ValuJet flight 592 in 1996, cargoes had to meet a higher standard for fire resistance  Federal Aviation Admin first posted on Notice o Proposed Rulemaking, acceptedcomments and then agreed to adopt a law  Congress would have been bogged down by peoples' desires to comment and input III. Policy Types ○ How interests are organized and how various interests react to different kinds of policies ○ Early policy typologies separatedinto topical categories  Education, health, transportation  Did not help us understand the underlying politics a. Distributive, Regulatory, and Redistributive Policies  Knowing the typology of the regulationshelps us understand and predict the conflicts that may arise from implementing and how to prevent it i. Distributive Policies: Granting some benefit to a certain group □ Farm subsidiesand federal spending on local infrastructure □ Important for congressmen to bring home the "bacon"from the "pork barrel" for reelection, many will negotiateand support("horse trading") each others' causes because everyone benefits politically ("logrolling") □ This kind of policies may be problematicin a democracy because of the heavy influenceof interest groups, making it "interest group liberalism" ii. Regulatory Policies: Govern the conduct of business 1) Competitiveregulatorypolicy: "Limit the provision of goods and services to one or a few deliverers" - Licensing professionals such as lawyers and doctors ◊ Ensures the training and competency ◊ Ensures the training and competency ◊ Barriers to the market, creating a higher pay - Awarding of cable vision and radio franchises to local gov'
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