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Chapter 4

COMPLETE The Policymaking Process Notes - Chapter 4 (4.0ed this course!)

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Boston University
Political Science
CAS PO 331

Kingdon Chapter 4: Processes:Origins, Rationality,Incrementalism, and Garbage Cans Saturday, January 18, 2014 9:25 PM I. Origins ○ Ideas come from everywhere;civil servants, outside analysts, scientific community,lobby, etc. ○ Ideas do not start from proximatesource; goes way back in history  Ultimate origin of an idea, concern or proposal cannot be specified ○ There are no "leaders" because agenda problems are roughly known to all participants, the whole communityif affected across the board, no one knows the issue before hand  Participants come and go ○ Combination of factors is responsible for the movementof an item into the agenda  We vote for a president because we are impressed with multiple qualities  A combinationis needed because of our fragmented system □ A variety of people is required to bring an idea to policy fruition □ Variety of human resources such as political popularity and expertise  Nobody controls the flow in the information system  It is not where the seeds comefrom but what makes the soil fertile □ Everyonecan have ideas but what makes them go into policy?  Healthcare caught on because of the growth in technology II. Comprehensive,Rational Decision Making ○ If policymakerswere acting in the rational, comprehensivemodel;they would define their goals clearly and set levels of achievementsthat would ultimatelysatisfy the goal  Will look for alternative ideas to satisfy the goal and asses their cost and benefits  Does not accurately describe real politics □ Idea of processing all alternativesis impossible because the human mind is limited □ Policymakingdoes not usually happen in stages III. Incrementalism ○ Policymakerstake what they are currently given and then make small incremental adjustments ○ No specific goal defining, just gradual changes to a bigger broader goal ○ Little controversy when there is a stable pattern ○ Politicians avoid significant changes ○ Incrementalism or gradualism model does not describe agenda change particularly well  If it worked, then the subject should be gradually more respondent □ Interest in subjec
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