PS101 Lecture 3 (Chapter 2 cont. & Chapter 3)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

1/29 CHAPTER 2 (CONT.) Quantify and make everything as objective as possible. Every time we look at data, we look at the mean differences of psych. Calibration and accuracy with measuring/evaluating. Evaluating Research ● Replication ○ Replicating publications/designs ● Meta-analysis ○ Taking a number of studies to find patterns Research Ethics - Subjects need to be protected! ● IRB ○ Need their approval/stamp before studies can start Nuremberg Code “primum non nocere” (First, do no harm) ● Most important document in the history of the ethics of medical research ● Code formulated in August, 1947 in Nuremberg, Germany ○ byAmerican judges sitting in judgment of Nazi doctors ○ use of prisoners in Nazi concentration campcs ■ 23 Defendants ■ 1271 Documents ■ 16 of 23 Defendants found guilty ● 1. Voluntary consent of human subject ● 2. Experiment should yield fruitful results of the good of society ● 3. Anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment ● 4. Avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury ● 5. No experiment conducted if a priori belief death/injury will occur ● 6. Degree of risk should never exceed importance of problem ● 7. Preparation and facilities to protect against injury, disability, or death ● 8. Experiment conducted by only scientifically qualified persons ● 9. Subjects should be able to end experiment at will ● 10. Scientist should end experiment if injury, disability, or death is possible Belmont Report - Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research ● National Research Act ○ Signed into law on July 12, 1974 ○ Created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research ■ Identify basic ethical principles involving human research ■ Develop guidelines ○ Belmont Report summarizes the basis ethical principles identified by the Commission ● 1. Respect for Persons ○ Individuals treated as autonomous agents ■ Enter into research voluntarily and with adequate information ■ No coercion or undue influence ■ Informed Consent ● Information ● Cmprehension ● Voluntariness ○ Principle ofAutonomy ■ People should be treated as autonomous individuals ■ People with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection ■ “Vulnerability Principle” ■ People in need of extensive protection: ● Prisoners ● Mentally-i
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