Ch 6 Psych Notes

2 Pages

Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 261
David Shim

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Ch. 6: The Causes, Effects, and Cures of Stereotyping, Prejudice & Discrimination ­Prejudice: negative emotional responses or dislike based on group membership; feelings  component of our reaction towards particular groups ­Discrimination: differential behavior that is directed toward members of specific groups HOW MEMBERS OF DIFFERENT GROUPS PERCIEVE INEQUALITY ­Risk Averse: weigh possible losses more heavily than equivalent potential gains; as  result: we respond more negatively to changes that are framed as potential losses than  potential gains ­After Obama’s election, ppl supported black right movements less bc they believed it  wasn’t a valid problem anymore (perception of racial progress too great) ­Can be based on: rage, age, marital status, occupation, gender, religions, language,  sexual orientation, body weight NATURE & ORIGINS OF STEREOTYPING ­Stereotypes: cognitive component of attitudes toward a social group—beliefs about what  a group is like ­Gender Stereotypes: beliefs concerning the characteristics of women & men—positive  & negative traits ­Glass Ceiling: women encounter more barriers than men in their careers; harder to  advance to top positions; “think­manager­think­male” bias ­Women who break stereotypes—likely to face hostility ­Some of most blatant stereotyping can be found in video games (sexist) ­Glass Cliff Effect: position given to unlikely candidates when the position is more  precarious & there is a greater risk of failure; when men stereotype fails, women  stereotype are seen as suitable as new leader ­Tokenism: hiring or acceptance of only a few members of a particular group—maintains  perceptions that system is not discriminatory & harms how tokens are perceived by  others/undermine performance bc they believe their appointment to leadership was not  merit­based IS STEREOTYPING ABSENT IF MEMBERS OF DIFF GROUPS R RATED THE  SAME ­Shifting Standards: although same evaluation ratings can be given to members of  different groups, stereotypes may have influenced ratings ­Subjective Scale Ratings: can take on different meanings depending on who they are  applied to ­Objective Scale Ratings: numerical and meaning is same no matter who they are applied  to PREJUDICE: FEELINGS TOWARD SOCIAL GROUPS ­Prejudice: feelings component of attitudes toward members of a group as a whole ­Discrimination: unfavorable treatment or negative actions toward members of disliked  groups (whether discrimination is expressed depends on norms) ­Implicit
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