ELED 120 Chapter 2: Vocabulary

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8 Feb 2017
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Chapter 2
Vocabulary
Accommodation: the process of altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to
new information.
Action Research: systematic observations or tests of methods conducted by teachers or schools
to improve teaching and learning for their students.
Appropriating: taking in and using ways of acting and thinking prided by the culture and by the
more capable members of a group.
Assessment Bias: the qualities of an assessment instrument that offend or unfairly penalize a
group of students because of the students’ gender, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and so
on.
Assimilation: fitting new information into existing schemes.
Attention: focus on a stimulus; also, the awareness of and interest in phenomena.
Aversive: irritating or unpleasant.
Behaviorism: explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in
observable behaviors.
Bioecological Model: Bronfenbrenner’s theory describing the nested social and cultural contexts
that shape development. Every person develops within a microsystem inside a mesosystem
embedded in an exosystem all of which are a part of the macrosystem of a culture. All
development occurs in and is influenced by the time periodthe chronosystem.
Case Study: the intensive study of one person or one situation.
Classical Conditioning: the association of automatic, often involuntary, responses with new
stimuli.
Clinical Interview: a research approach that uses open-ended questioning to probe responses
and follow up on answers.
Co-Constructed Process: a social process in which people interact and negotiate (usually
verbally) to create an understanding or to solve a problem. All participants shape the final
product.
Community-Based Research: research that is conducted by, with, and for communities.
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Consequences: events that follow an action.
Correlation: statistical descriptions of how closely two variables are related; indicates both the
strength and the direction of a relationship between two events or measurements.
Cross-Sectional Studies: studies in which different age groups are compared at the same time.
Cultural Tools: the real material tools (computers scales, etc.) and psychological tools such as
symbol systems (numbers, language, graphs) that allow people in a society to communicate,
think solve problems, and create knowledge.
Curvilinear: a relationship between two variables that changes at different points.
Debrief: the process of explaining to research participants what was done and why.
Dependent Variable: the factor in the experiment you are trying to predict; the one that might
change when you apply the treatment (manipulate the independent variable)
Developmental Crisis: a specific conflict whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage.
Disequilibrium: in Piaget’s theory, the “out-of-balance” state that occurs when a person realized
that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a
situation.
Empirical: based on data.
Equilibration: the search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from
the environment.
Ethnographic Methods: a descriptive approach to research that focuses on life within a group
and tries to understand the meaning of events to the people involved.
Ethnology: the study of how behaviors adapt to support the survival of animals, including
humans.
Experimentation: a research method in which variables are manipulated and the effects are
recorded.
External Validity: the extent to which the results found in a study might generalize to groups or
settings not studied.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): a procedure that uses radio waves in a
strong magnetic field to measure the small metabolic changes that take place in areas of the brain
that are active.
Generalizing: applying findings to a wider group than those studied.
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