CHE 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Benzene, Gas Constant, Semipermeable Membrane

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3 Feb 2021
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Revision Notes on Solution:
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two (or more) substances, the composition of which may
vary between certain limits. A solution consisting of two components is called binary solution
. The
component which is present in large quantity is called solvent
and the component which is small in
quantity is called solute
. If both components are in same physical state.
Type of Solutions
All the three states of matter (gas, liquid or solid) may behave either
as solvent or solute. Depending on the state of solute or solvent, mainly there may be the following
seven types of binary solutions.
S.No.
Solute
Solvent
Example
1
Gas
Gas
Air
2
Gas
Liquid
Aerated water (CO2 + H2O)
3
Gas
Solid
Hydrogen in palladium
4
Liquid
Liquid
Alcohol in water, benzene in toluene
5
Liquid
Solid
Mercury in zinc amalgam
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Vapour Pressure:
The pressure exerted by vapours over the liquid surface at equilibrium is called vapour
pressure
of the liquid.
If solute is non volatile solid or liquid the vapour pressure of solution is equal to partial
vapour pressure of solvent in the solution.
If the solute is volatile solid or liquid, then vapour pressure will be equal to the sum of
partial vapour pressure of solute and that of solvent.
Raoult’s Law:
“The partial vapour pressure of any component in the solution is directly proportional to its
mole fraction
”.
6
Liquid
Gas
CO2 dissolved in water
7
Solid
Liquid
Sugar in water, common salt in water
8
Solid
Gas
Smoke
9
Solid
Solid
Various alloys
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For a binary solution of two components A and B,
PA = XA
PB = XB
Where
P0A = vapour pressure of component A in pure state.
PA = vapour pressure of component A in the solution.
P0B = vapour pressure of component B in pure state.
PB = vapour pressure of component B in the solution
Limitations of Raoult’s Law
Raoult’s law is applicable only to very dilute solutions.
It is applicable to solutions containing non-volatile solute only.
It is not applicable to solutes which dissociate or associate in a particular solution
Raoult’s Law in Combination with Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure:
PT = X
A P0A + X
B P0B = P0B + (P0A -P0B) X
A
Where
PT = Total Vapour Pressure of the Solution.
Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions:
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