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Chapter 8

PSY 252 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: David Rosenhan, Availability Heuristic, Psy

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PSY 252

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PSY 252
Illusory Correlations & Reasons for Unreason (Module 8 Notes)
1) our preconceptions control our interpretations
2) we often are swayed more by anecdotes than by statistical facts
3) we misperceive correlation and control
4) our beliefs can generate their own conclusions
-Evidence provided for the claim that our preconceptions control our interpretations; Robert
Vallone, Lee Ross, and Mark Lepper (1985) Study
-Robert Vallone, Lee Ross, and Mark Lepper (1985) Study:
They showed pro-Israeli and pro-Arab students six network news segments describing the 1982
killing of civilian refugees at two camps in Beirut, Lebanon. Each group perceived the networks
as hostile to its side. The phenomenon is commonplace: Sports fans perceive referees as partial
to the other side. Political candidates and their supporters nearly always view the news media
as unsympathetic to their cause. It's not just fans and politicians. People everywhere perceive
mediators and media as biased against their position. "There is no subject about which people
are less objective than objectivity," noted one media commentator.
-The more easily we recall something, the more likely it seems. Powerful anecdotes are more
compelling than statistical information. our naive statistical intuitions are driven by emotions
attuned to the availability heuristic.
-Illusionary correlation: the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables
(typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.
-If you hear a superstition and then it happens to you at least once then you'll believe it's
because of the superstition.
-Illusion of control in regards to gambling: Compared with those given an assigned lottery
number, people who chose their own number demanded four times as much money when
asked if they would sell their ticket. When playing a game of chance against an awkward and
erous perso, the et sigifiatl ore tha he plaig agaist a dapper, ofidet
opponent. Being the person who throws the dice or spins the wheel increases people's
ofidee. I these ad other as, ore tha 50 eperiets hae osistetl foud people
acting as if they can predict or control chance events.
-Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: A prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true,
by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
-Teachers' expectations influence student performance because:
- their positive attitude may be a hope-giving breath of fresh air
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