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● Sample space of an experiment is all of its possible outcomes

○ The simplest is a binary outcome as there are 2 possible outcomes

● Sample space denoted as S = {N, D} where N represents not defective, and D

represents defective

○ Gender of baby in a hospital: S= {M, F}

● An event is any collection of outcomes

○ Simple if it has one outcome, compound if it has more than one outcome

● Complements to an event are the set of outcomes not contained in the event

● Some events will intersect

○ ie) “A ∩ B” means “A and B” is the event consisting of all outcomes that are in

both A and B

● Events can also be in union

○ ie) “A U B” means A or B and is events consisting all outcomes A or B

● De Morgan’s Law says if A and B are 2 events in sample space of some experiment,

then (A U B) = A’ ∩ B’ and (A ∩ B) = A’ U B’

● When there are no outcomes in common, it is said the events are disjointed

1.2

● The sum of the probabilities of each of the independent outcomes in an event add up to

1

● There must be a distinction between the long term probability and the short term

likelihood

○ The long term probability of a dishwasher needing warranty service being 10%

does not mean that 1 out of every 10 dishwashers will need this service

● Addition rule says P(A U B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A ∩ B)

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