BIOL-2230 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Intrinsic Factor, Heme, Macrophage

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BIOL 2230 Chapter 17 Key Terms
Hematocrit: the percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes
Plasma: the nonliving fluid component of blood within which formed elements and
various solutes are suspended and circulated
Albumin: the most abundant plasma protein
Formed elements: cellular portion of blood
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs): red blood cells
Hemoglobin: oxygen-transporting protein of erythrocytes
Heme: iron-containing pigment that is essential to oxygen transport by hemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin: oxygen-bound form of hemoglobin
Hematopoiesis: blood cell formation; hemopoiesis
Hematopoietic stem cell: bone marrow cell that gives rise to all the formed elements of
blood; hemocytoblast
Erythropoiesis: process of erythrocyte formation
Erythropoietin (EPO): hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells
Bilirubin: yellow pigment of bile
Anemia: reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood resulting from two few erythrocytes
or abnormal hemoglobin
Intrinsic factor: substance produced by the stomach that is required for vitamin B12
absorption
Polycythemia: an abnormally high number of erythrocytes
Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs): white blood cells; formed elements involved in
body protection that take part in inflammatory and immune responses
Diapedesis: passage of white blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue
Amoeboid motion: the flowing movement of the cytoplasm of a phagocyte
Leukocytosis: an increase in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells); usually the
result of a microbiological attack on the body
Neutrophil: most abundant type of white blood cell
Eosinophil: granular white blood cell whose granules readily take up an acid stain called
eosin
Basophil: white blood cell whose granules stain purplish-black and nucleus purple with
basic dye
Lymphocyte: agranular white blood cell that arises from bone marrow and becomes
functionally mature in the lymphoid organs of the body
T lymphocytes (T cells): lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity; include helper,
cytotoxic, regulatory, and memory cells
B lymphocytes (B cells): oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into
antibody-producing plasma cells
Antibody: a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daughter cell) of an
activated B lymphocyte) and that binds specifically to an antigen; an immunoglobulin
Monocyte: large single-nucleus white blood cell; agranular leukocyte
Macrophage: protective cell type common in connective tissue, lymphoid tissue, and
many body organs; phagocytizes tissue cells, bacteria, and other foreign debris; presents
antigens to T cells in the immune response
Leukopoiesis: the production of white blood cells
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