• All organisms are made of cells and are packages
• What kind of lipids make up cell membranes? An example pictured on the right?
• Which of the following proteins perform in accelerating the chemical reactions
that occur inside of all life? Enzymatic proteins
• The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live.
• Cells are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids “fabric” interwoven with
cholesterol and protein.
• Scanning electron microscopes focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a
~providing images that look 3d
• Transmission electron microscopes focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
~ TEMS are used mainly to study the internal structure of cells
• Cell fractionation: Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one
• Ultracentrifuges fractionate cells into their component of cells
• Cell fractionation enables scientists to determine the functions of organelles
• Biochemistry and cytology help correlate cell function with structure.
• Plasma membrane
~ the baggie containing everything else
• Semi fluid substance called cytosol
~ goopy stuff
• Chromosomes (carry genes)
• Ribosomes (make proteins)
• Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having
1. DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope.
2. Membrane bound organelles