LIFE 102 Chapter Notes -Cell Fractionation, Nuclear Membrane, Cell Membrane
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•All organisms are made of cells and are packages
•What kind of lipids make up cell membranes? An example pictured on the right?
•Which of the following proteins perform in accelerating the chemical reactions
that occur inside of all life? Enzymatic proteins
•The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live.
•Cells are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids “fabric” interwoven with
cholesterol and protein.
•Scanning electron microscopes focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a
~providing images that look 3d
•Transmission electron microscopes focus a beam of electrons through a specimen
~ TEMS are used mainly to study the internal structure of cells
•Cell fractionation: Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one
•Ultracentrifuges fractionate cells into their component of cells
•Cell fractionation enables scientists to determine the functions of organelles
•Biochemistry and cytology help correlate cell function with structure.
~ the baggie containing everything else
•Semi fluid substance called cytosol
~ goopy stuff
•Chromosomes (carry genes)
•Ribosomes (make proteins)
•Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having
1. DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope.
2. Membrane bound organelles
3. Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
•The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows a lot of oxygen, nutrients and
waste to pass by.
•A eukaryotic cell has an internal membrane that makes the cell into organelles.
•The difference between plants and animals is that plants have a cell wall and green little
balls called chloroplasts. Animals don’t have that.
•Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus
•The shape of the nucleus is maintained by the nuclear lamina, which is composed of
•In the nucleus , DNA and protein form genetic material called chromatin
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