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Chapter 6

SNES 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Demographic Transition, Infant Mortality, Total Fertility Rate


Department
Science of Natural & Environmental Systems
Course Code
SNES 1101
Professor
madsen
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6 - The Human population and its impact
Cultural carrying capacity
- an optimum level that would allow most people to live in reasonable comfort and
freedom without impairing the ability of the planet to sustain future generation
3 factors determine the human population
1. birth (fertility)
2. death (mortality)
3. migration
Population change = (Birth + Immigration) - (Death + Emigration)
Death rate / crude death rate
- the number of death per 1000 people in a population in a year
Fertility rate
- number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Replacement-level fertility rate
- the average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace
themselves
Total fertility rate
- the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproduction
years
Factors that affect a country’s average birth rate and total fertility rate
1. Importance of children as a part of the labor force
2. Cost of raising and educating children
3. Availability of private and public pension systems
4. Urbanization
5. Educational and employment opportunities for women
6. Infant mortality rate - number of children per 1000 die before 1 year old
7. Average age at marriage
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