SNES 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Foundation Species, Punctuated Equilibrium, Convergent Evolution

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Biodiversity the variety of the earth"s species, the genes they contain the ecosystem in which they live, and the ecosystem processes such as energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all life. Species diversity the number and abundance of species present in different communities. Genetic diversity the variety of genes within a species/population enable life on earth to adapt. Functional diversity the variety of natural processes needed for the survival of species, communities, ecosystem. Biological evolution the process whereby earth"s life changes over time through changes in the genes of population. Mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, etc. Fossil record the world"s cumulative body of fossil. Population, not individuals, evolve by becoming genetically different. Genetic variability the first step in the process of evolve. Mutation random changes in the structure or number of dna that can be inherited by offsprings. Any heritable trait that enables an individual organism to survive and reproduce more than others.

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