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Chapter 7

SNES 1101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Energy, Biome, Ap Environmental Science


Department
Science of Natural & Environmental Systems
Course Code
SNES 1101
Professor
madsen
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Notes & Study Guide
AP Environmental Science October 25, 2014 1 | P a g e
Key terms
Weather
- is a local area’s short-term temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed,
cloud cover, and other physical conditions of the lower atmosphere as measured
over hours or days
Climate
- is an area’s general pattern of atmospheric or conditions measured over long
periods of time
3 factors that determine how air circulates in the lower atmosphere
1. Uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun;
2. Rotation of the earth on its axis;
3. Properties of air water, and land.
Currents
- Mass movements of surface water
- Redistribute heat from the sun
- Influence climate and vegetation
Greenhouse gases
- H2O: water vapor
- CO2: Carbon dioxide
- N2O: Nitrous oxide
- CH4: Methane
- Allow most visible light and some infrared and ultraviolet radiations from the
sun pass through atmosphere
Greenhouse effect
- Natural warming effect of the troposphere
Rain shadow effect
- The loss of moisture from the landscape and the resulting semiarid or arid
condition on the leeward side of high mountains (See Figure 7.2)

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Chapter 7 Notes & Study Guide
AP Environmental Science October 25, 2014 2 | P a g e
Tropical deserts
- Hot and dry most of the year
- Have few plants
- Have a hard, windblown surface strew with rocks and some sand
Temperate deserts
- Daytime temperatures are high in summer and low in the winter
- More precipitation than tropical deserts
- Sparse vegetation: widely dispersed, drought resistant shrubs and cacti
Cold deserts
- Vegetation is sparse
- Cold winter, hot summer, low precipitation
General desert patterns
- Slow plant growth, low species diversity, slow nutrient cycling, lack of water
Grassland
- Occur mostly in the interiors of continents
- Too moist for deserts
- Too dry for deserts
Savanna (tropical grassland)
- Contains widely scattered clumps of trees (acacia)
o Covered with thorns to keep herbivores out
- Warm temperature year-round
- Alternating dry and wet seasons
Animals on savannas
- Grazing animals: grass and herb eating animals
- Browsing animals: twig and leaf nibbling animals
These animals evolved to eat different things (resource partitioning)
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