ANTH 011 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Infant Mortality, Parental Investment

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Anthro 11
David Nguyen
Biological Anthro
Fall 2017
College of the Sequoias
Primate Mating: Males
Selection shapes parenting strategies of males and females.
Parental investment is costly
Parents must make trade offs between current and future offspring.
Strategies depend on details of reproductive biology.
Mammalian females are obligated to invest in offspring.
Mammalian males have more options.
Males will invest when benefits derived from extra matings are less than benefits derived form
providing care.
Expect males to invest when finding additional makes is difficult, or fitness of
offspring raised by one parent is low.
Difficult to find more mates when females widely spaced and when females mate
Fitness of offspring raised by one parent is low when infants are quite large, litter size
is > 1, and in high infant mortality contexts.
Pair-bonded species: solicitous mates and committed fathers
Males invest in offspring (carry infants, share food).
Males guard females vs. rivals
Closely bonded to mate.
Marmosets, Titi monkeys, gibbons, siamangs.
Multi-male groups: competitive males, distant fathers.
Males compete for dominance rank
Male dominance rank is function of size & strength
Rank order changes frequently
High ranking males monopolize conceiving females.
Baboon males are twice as large as females- sexual dimorphism.
In multi-male groups, some males may provide low cost care
o Tolerant of juveniles
o Support juveniles in aggressive interactions
o Some evidence that males selectively help their own offspring.
One-male groups: competition is intensified.
Males compete for access to groups of females
Outsiders exert constant pressure on resident males
Tenure of resident male often short
Male-male competition leads to sexual dimorphism
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