GEOG 001 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Point Dume, Kelp Forest, Headache

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Geog 1
Physical Geography
Why are MPA’s needed?
Many fisheries in decline or on verge of collapse
Coastal development has impacted marine ecosystems
Conflicting uses (fisheries / diving etc)
Most cost-effective to protect all parts of ecosystem (land/marine etc)
Are MPA’s really a solution or just another headache?
Challenges of MPA’s
Animals move, individual habitats vary, environmental conditions
Trying to put MPA’s along a ‘stepping stone’ route is difficult, we
need to do a better job of linking MPA’s
Economic hardships and safety issues amongst fishing community
Monitoring is extremely difficult (a lot of area to cover), regulation,
enforcement, etc. Monetarily expensive
Not all MPA’s are created equal
There are various designations of MPAs.
At the top is State Marine Reserves (SMRs)
No-take reserves
Lowest is State Marine Parks (SMPs)
Regulated take
State Marine Conservation Areas (SMCAs)
Fewer restrictions, geared more towards certain species or habitat
State Marine Recreational Management Areas (MMAs)
Even fewer restrictions, geared towards allowing recreation while also
How to place MPAs
Based off many factors
best available science for placement decision
Stakeholder inputs/pressures
Public input/review
Science guidelines
Preferred increments is every 30 miles or so along coast, spanning at least 6-
12 miles
Try to have MPA replicating multiple habitats within each region
Key habitats like sandy beach, rocky intertidal, estuary, canyon, kelp
forest etc etc)
Recently established MPA’s in SoCal Bite
Point Dume, Dana Point, 3 others were rejected
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