CHEM 101L Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.0: Rutherford Model, Electric Field, Niels Bohr

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CHEM 101: The History of the Foundations of Chemistry and the Concepts of
Early Modern Greeks into the Development of Modern Chemistry
The early Greeks, mainly that of Democritus and his master Theocritus,
conceptualized that everything in the universe was made up of very small
unbreakable particles and empty space. They called that small particle an
atomos , the Greek word meaning a substance that cannot be broken down
any further, and that concept became the foundations of modern chemistry in
the 19th century and became to what we know as an atom. The more prevalent
philosophers of the time, Plato and Aristotle, did not believe in such a concept,
and as Democritus and Theocritus could not support their theory, this notion
of an “atom” was left behind until its re-implication into modern chemistry in
the early 19th century.
In 1808, modern chemist John Dalton created the fundamental understanding
of modern chemistry known as the Atomic Theory. The Atomic theory states 4
very simple things: 1. Each element is made up of small indestructible
particles called atoms. 2. The mass of an atom distinguishes the difference
between elements. 3. Atoms combine in simple whole ratio numbers in order
to create new molecules. 4. Atoms of one element cannot change into an atom
of another element.
From there, other laws were established by other chemists. Chemist Joseph
Proust established the Law of Definite Proportions that states that the
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