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Chapter 4

HIST 270 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: George Whitefield, Stono Rebellion, Flax


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 270
Professor
Kathleen E Addison
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 - The English Colonies in the Eighteenth Century
The English Transatlantic Communities of Trade
*What
were
the
main
regional
differences
in
colonial
commerce
and
what
kind
of
economic
choices
did
each
region
offer
colonists?*
- Four regional economies on the mainland by Atlantic
- Backcountry - subsistence society
- South had fifth regional economy from sugar trade
- All shaped by:
- Environmental conditions
- Natural resources
- English commercial policy
- Available labor force
- Available technological knowledge
Regions of Commerce
- Southern sugar economies
- Used to be Spain’s (west indies) but now it’s England’s
- Absentee planters (estate owners in England) made bank
- Work force = slaves
- South Carolina/Georgia economies
- Rice growing & later indigo
- Work force = slaves
- No permanent absentee landowners
- Chesapeake economies
- Tobacco growing & wheat/grain (bc of taxes on tobacco)
- Indentured servants African slaves (before this)
- Slaves made rich people richer
- New England economy
- Shipbuilding and carrying trade (trade across caribbean)
- Rivals of English merchants rather than sources of profit
- New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware economies
- Staple-crop farming and trade
- Wood products (shipbuilding) / flaxseed (linens) / wheat = central
- Backcountry economies
- Farmed by euro immigrants, ex-servants, or families of younger sons
- Struggled
- Belt of subsistence
The Cords of Commercial Empire
- British mercantilism
- Navigation Acts - regulated colonial trade
- English ships for exports from colonies
- No competitive items w/ England
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- Import taxes for trading w/ rival nations
- England = 50% of exports from colonies, 90% of imports to colonies
Community and Work in Colonies:
- How
did
the
Yankee
society
of
the
early
eighteenth
century
New
England
differ
from
Puritan
society?
- Puritans = community centered, Yankees = self-centered
- Puritans = regulate prices/interest rates / Yankees = economic competition/gains
- BUT - Yankees still supported public institutions (mail, school, news)
- Why
did
colonists
in
the
Chesapeake
and
Lower
South
shift
to
slave
labor?
What
problems
faced
Africans
in
slavery?
- England’s economy better & more immigration to Middle Colonies indentured
servants more African slaves
- Planter’s benefits: bound for life, won’t compete, no holidays
- Dutch monopoly broken as Chesapeake population increased
- Barbados = cruelty colonists cruel to African slaves
- Children’s freedom/enslavement depended on mother
- Kidnapped or war captives in Africa
- Beaten, march - death & no burial, suicides
- Middle Passage - transatlantic voyage w/ death/disease/suicide/mutiny
- 18% of slaves died on ocean
- “Gang labor” - no families, no community, separation of men/women
- “Outlanders” - new slaves, made a sense of community
- Lower South - slaves more isolated created Creole culture // “task labor”
- Resistance - community, broke tools, faked illness, ran away
- What
distinguished
life
in
the
Middle
Colonies?
- “Best poor man’s country” - middle class farm families
- Major cities = New York & Philadelphia - people poured in Philly = 2nd largest
British Empire city (1770)
- Problems - disease from sailors & crowds, fires, crime
- Benefits - young sons/daughters could do many jobs
- Apprentices - lived w/ craftsmen, learned trade
- Women - dressmakers, milliners (hats), prostitutes, or domestic
- Widows - nurses, shops, teachers, seamstress
- Not slaves on farms, slaves at docks, NYC had highest African population
- What
motivated
colonists
to
migrate
to
the
backcountry?
- Not enough farmland to inherit
- Moving to commercial cities sucked
- Squatters - new immigrants, small land
- Sometimes oppression/desperation, sometimes land/craft/religious freedom
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