GEOL 3070 Chapter 11: Chapter 11 The Living Ocean

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Geological Sciences
Course Code
GEOL 3070
Thomas Marchitto

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Chapter 11: The Living Ocean Sunday, April 2, 2017 12:39 PM 11.1 Evolution in the Marine Environment • Prokaryotes: Grouping of organisms based on morphology. All prokaryotes are unicellular with no internal membrane structures. Prokaryotes are composed of members of the domains Archaea and Bacteria. • Eukaryote: grouping of organisms based on cell morphology. Eukaryotes are either unicellular or multicellular. All eukaryotic cells contain internal membrane-bound cell structures, including the nucleus that contains cellular DNA. • Nucleus: part of a cell that houses the majority of the cell's DNA • Mitochondria: organelle (internal cell structure) used to derive energy from food in cells • Chloroplasts: used to harvest sunlight by photosynthesis in cells 11.5 Facts of Life in the Ocean Light • Bioluminescence: this light is generated by the organisms themselves • Countershading: refers to organisms that have a dark dorsal surface (black) and light ventral surface (underside) to blend into the background Temperature • Temperature of surface water is influenced by season and latitude • Psychrophile: microorganisms that grow in cold temperatures such as those that live in sea ice. • Poikilotherms: organism with a body temperature that varies according to the temperature of its surroundings • H
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