Social Psych Exam 3 - Chapters 3, 6, & 10
Chapter 6: Emotion
● Emotion: a brief, specific response, both psychological and physiological, that helps people meet
goals, many of which are social.
● Appraisal process: a component of emotion; patterns of construal for evaluating events and
objects in the environment based on their relation to current goals.
● Emotions and Actions
○ The monkey to the left shows a classic threat display, signaling aggressive intentions.
○ The women to the right shows a similar pattern of expressive behavior, signaling anger
at the injustice she is protesting.
● Looking back → Emotions are brief, specific, multidimensional experiences that help people
meet their (often social) goals. Emotions involve five components: the appraisal process,
physiological responses, expressive behavior, subjective feelings, and action tendencies.
Emotions guide our behavior and lead to action, enabling us to respond to the threats and
opportunities we perceive in the environment.
Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific
● Charles Darwin
○ Signaling Intentions
■ Darwin believed animals signal their intentions through emotional displays.
○ Darwin studied emotional expressions in humans and nonhuman species. He sought to
document that human emotional expressions have parallels in other species and are
universal to people of all cultures.
● Embarrassment, Appeasement, and Maintaining Social Bonds
○ To maintain harmonious social relations, humans often exhibit behaviors that are
reminiscent of appeasement displays in the nonhuman species. ○
○ This example shows a human and chimpanzees exhibited the same emotional
● Emotion accent: a specific way people from different cultures express a particular emotion.
● Focal emotions: an emotion that is especially common within a particular culture.
● Display rules: a culturally specific rule that governs how, when, to whom people express
● Neutralizing Expressions
○ Ex. poker face
● Looking back → Darwin inspired dozens of studies finding that human emotional expression is
universal, is seen in other species, and is evident in those blind from birth. At the same time,
cultures have specific emotion accents, such as the tongue bite in India for embarrassment.
Cultures vary in the emotions that are focal, having richer vocabularies and expressing them
more in their nonverbal behavior. People of different cultures vary in the emotions they value.
And cultures differ in how they regulate emotions with specific display rules, the rules governing
how and when to express emotions.
Emotions and Social Relationships
● Emotions and Personal Relationships
○ Emotions often determine the quality and stability of romantic relationships. If a couple
can maintain humor, mirth, and other positive emotions throughout their marriage,
they will be less likely to divorce.
● Emotions are like a nonverbal language we use to carry out social interactions - they coordinate
our interactions with others.
● Touch improves cooperation on the basketball court (i.e., sports teams).
● Emotional intelligence (EQ): the ability to express, recognize, and use emotions well within social
○ 1. The ability to accurately perceive others’ emotions.
○ 2. The ability to understand one’s own emotions.
○ 3. The ability to use current feelings to aid emotions.
○ 4. The ability to manage one’s emotions in ways that fit the current situation.
● Measured using an EQ te