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Chapter 13

BIO 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Streptococcal Pharyngitis, Probiotic, Acne Vulgaris

Bioscience & Biotechnology
Course Code
BIO 101
Meshagae Hunte- Brown

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Chapter 13
Not all microbes are closely related evoluonarily (13.1)
Microbe- a microscopic organism; not a monophylec group, since it includes prosts, archaea, and
Microbes are grouped together only because they are small, not because of evoluonary relatedness.
They occur in all three domains of life and also include the viruses, which are not included in any of the
Microbes are the simplest but most successful organisms on earth (13.2)
Microbes are genecally diverse
Microbial species live in almost every habitat on earth; among them, they can eat almost anything
Microbes are abundant
Microbes are very small, simple organisms, but they do everything that larger, mulcellular organisms do.
They can live anywhere, from moderate to extreme environments. There are millions of dierent kinds of
microbes on earth, in enormous numbers
Microbes in the three of life
oDomain bacteria
oDomain archaea
oDomain eukarya
What are bacteria? (13.3)
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus
Bacterial species are commonly classi#ed by their shape:
oCocci- spherical bacteria
oBacilli- rod shaped bacteria
oSpirilli- spiral shaped bacteria
Methods of idenfying bacteria
Some bacteria can be iden#ed by looking at the colors and shapes of their colonies
oGram staining
Gram posive bacteria- the glycoprotein layer (pepdoglycan) is on the outside of the
cell wall and can be stained with purple dye
Gram negave bacteria- the glycoprotein layer lies beneath an addional membrane and
cannot be stained with the dye
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