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Chapter 10

PSY 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Binge Drinking, Sympathetic Nervous System, Neuron


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101
Professor
Douglas Chute
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10: Drugs and Consciousness
I. Tolerance and Addiction
Substance Use Disorder: continuous use and craving of a substance, despite it
ruining your life
Example: these substances are known as psychoactive drugs,
chemicals that change perception and mood.
The user’s expectation and the drug’s biological effect are factors to be taken into
account when taking a drug.
Tolerance: decreasing effect by taking the same dose of drug on a regular use,
therefore the user will take larger doses before even experiencing he effect.
Example: a person who rarely drinks alcohol drinks one can of beer and
gets buzzed. A long-term drinker shows less effects until his/her second
six-pack.
Neuroadaptation
: the brain chemistry adapts to the drug effect
Tolerance → Addiction ( compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors )
II. Types of Psychoactive Drugs
Three major types:
1. Depressant
2. Stimulant
3. Hallucinogens
All of these three stimulate
, inhibit
, or mimic
the activity of neurotransmitters, the
brain’s chemical messengers .
A. Depressants: calm neural activity and slow body functions
1. Alcohol
i. It increases helpful and harmful tendencies
a. Examples: Extravagant tips or sexual aggression
ii. Slowed Neural Processing
a. Small dose = drinker is relaxed by slowing sympathetic
nervous system activity
b. Large dose=slow reaction time, slurred speech,
performance deterioration
iii. Memory Disruption
a. Heavy drinking can have long-term effects on the brain and
cognition. It can cause blackouts, which drinkers are
unable to remember the people or events that happened
the night/ day before
b. Binge drinking causes nerve cell deaths, reduces new
nerve cells, impairs the growth of synaptic connections
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