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Chapter 46

PSY 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 46: Victorian Era, Sexual Repression, Reality Principle

Course Code
PSY 101
Douglas Chute

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I. Psychodynamic Theories
A. What is Personality?
1. Personality: one’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
2. Two popular theories have become part of our culture:
a) Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory states that childhood
sexuality and unconscious variations affect personality.
3. However trait theories study characteristic patterns of behavior (traits
4. Social cognitive theories explore the interaction between one another's
II. Psychodynamic Theories
- Sees personality with a focus on the unconscious and the important of childhood
A. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious
1. Freud’s influence not only linger in psychiatry and clinical psychology, but
also in literary and film works. Who was he though?
- From the Victorian Era where in the time there were tremendous
discovery and scientific advancement. Known today: a time of
sexual repression and male dominance.
- He specialized in nervous disorders
- Observing patients led him to the “discovery” of the unconscious
a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes,
feelings, and memories.
2. Without one’s awareness, these troubled feelings and ideas would
influence us, sometimes gaining expression in disguised forms, like the
work we choose, the beliefs we hold, one’s daily habits.
3. Personality Structure
a. Human personality comes from a conflict between impulse and
b. To understand the mind’s dynamics during these conflicts, he
proposed three interacting systems:
i. Id
- Unconscious psychic energy; id operates on the
pleasure principle; it seeks immediate gratification
ii. Ego
- It operates on the reality principle, seeking to gratify
the id’s impulses in realistic ways that will bring
long-term pleasure
- Contains the partly conscious perceptions,
thoughts, judgements, and memories
iii. Supergo
- Voice of the moral compass (conscience)
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