PSY 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Philippe Pinel, Epigenetics, Dsm-5
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Chapter 5: Introduction to Psychological Disorders
I. Defining Psychological Disorders
A. psychological disorder: a collection of symptoms that are marked by a clinically
significant disturbance in a person's cognition, behavior, or emotion regulation.
1. Dysfunctional thoughts or emotions are maladaptive
. They can disturb
with one’s normal life routine.
a) Example: cleaning rituations that interfere with work and/or leisure
can be signs of a disorder.
b) Example 2: sad moods that become disabling may be a sign of a
2. Distress’s best friend can be dysfunctional behaviors.
II. Understanding Psychological Disorders
Way of viewing a problem = how one tries to solve it
If you did something horrific in the Middle Ages, many would assume that the “devil”
made you do it.
Those who were considered “mad” were sent to institutions where they would remove
your teeth or lengths of your intestines, beat you, mutilate your genitals, etc.
Even today, some places chain people to a bed, lock them in their rooms, or even lock
them in a room with wild animals.
A. The Medical Model
1. Brutal treatments may worsen mental health.
2. Philippe Pinel opposed such brutal treatments and found that madness is
not something of demon possession. It was/is a sickness of the mind
cause by stress and inhumane conditions.
a) He replaced these brutal treatments with gentleness and activity
isolation, and clean air and sunshine.
3. The Medical Model reflects of the mental health
movement: a mental
that needs to be diagnosed on the basis of the symptoms.
B. The Biopsychosocial Approach
1. Calling a psychological disorder a sickness tilts research that it is
influences biologically and away from the influence of one’s personal
histories and cultural surroundings.
2. Behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are formed by the interaction of
biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences.
3. Disorders demonstrate genetic proneness and c states, inner
psychological dynamics, and social and cultural circumstances.
4. Negative emotions cause physical illness and physical abnormalities
cause negative emotions.
5. Epigenetics: study of how nurture shapes nature.
a) The environment can affect whether a gene is expressed or not.
Thus, influence the development of some psychological disorders.
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