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Chapter 7

PSY 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Bipolar Disorder, Mania, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 111
Professor
Megan L Meyer
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorder
Depression resembles a sort of psychic hibernation. What I mean is that it slows one
down, dufuses aggression, and helps one to let go of achievable goals.
Three disorders where depression impairs day to day living:
1. Major depressive disorder: state of hopelessness and laziness
2. Persistent depressive disorder: person experiences milder depressive feelings
3. Bipolar disorder: person changes between depression and overexcited
hyperactivity
I. Major Depressive Disorder
A. Symptoms:
1. Depressed mood most of the time
2. Uninterested in activities
3. Loss of appetite
4. Change in sleep
5. Having less energy or feeling listless
6. Feeling worthless or guilty all the time
7. Suicidal thoughts repetitively
8. Problem thinking, concentrating, or making decisions
B. One has depression if they show at least five symptoms that last more than two
weeks
C. Those who are diagnosed with persistent depressive undergo a mildly depressed
mood more often.
1. Symptoms:
a) Difficulty with making decisions
b) Feeling hopeless
c) Poor self-esteem
d) Reduced energy levels
e) Problems regulating sleep and appetite
II. Bipolar Disorder
A. People can feel the utmost horrible and disgusted for a day or even a moment.
Then the next, theyll feel over the moon excited and happy (mania)
B. Depression lives in slow motion; Manias is fast motion.
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C. What is shown during the manic phase?
1. Little need for sleep
2. Fewer sexual inhibitions
3. Positive emotions continue abnormally
4. Speech is loud
5. Thinking fast feels good, but increase risk taking
6. Mania’s energy and flood of ideas = creativity
D. those who rely more on precision and logic, like designers and journalists, suffer
bipolar disorder less often than those who rely on emotional expression and vivid
imagery.
III. Understanding Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorder
A. Facts that any theory on depression explains:
1. Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression
2. Depression is widespread
3. Women’s risk of major depression is double men’s
a) Women have more situations that may increase risk for
depression.
(1) Examples: unequal pay, juggling multiple roles at home
and at work, caring for children and family members
b) Men’s disorders seem to be more external.
(1) Example: alcohol use disorder, lack of impulse control, etc.
4. Most major depressive episodes self-terminate
5. Stressful events related to work, marriage, and close relationships often
precede depression
6. With each new generation, depression strikes earlier (now often in the
late teens) and affects more people, with the highest rates in developed
countries among young adults
B. The Biological Perspective
1. Genetic Influences
a) Depressive disorders and bipolar disorder run in the family.
b) To see how genes put people at risk for depression, researchers
turned to linkage analysis (points the researchers to a
chromosome neighborhood;”house-to-house search for finding the
affected gene”)
(1) Step 1: find families where the disorder appears across
generations
(2) Step 2: researcher studies DNA from affected and
unaffected family members to find any differences
2. The Depressed Brain
a) Studies have found diminished brain activity in slowed-down
depression states compared to more active periods of mania
b) MRI scans display the frontal lobes smaller than normal in a
depressed person.
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