PSY 111 Chapter 46: Studying and Encoding Memories
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Chapter 46: Studying and Encoding Memories
I. Studying Memory
Memory is learning that persists over time. The information that has been received and stored
and can be recovered.
A person can remember countless faces, places, and happenings, taste, smells, voices,
textures, and songs.
A. Measuring Retention
1. Evidence that learning persists includes three measures of retention:
a) Recall: reclaim information that’s not currently in one’s conscious
awareness but was learned at an earlier time.
b) Recognition: identify items previously learned.
c) Relearning: learning something more quickly when you learn it a
second or later time.
2. Later as you continue to grow, you might not recall most of the people in
your high school graduation class, but you can still be able to recognize
them in the yearbook from a photographic lineup and pick out their
a) Example: people graduated twenty-five years earlier couldn’t
remember many of their old classmates. However, they could only
recognize ninety percent of their pictures and names.
3. The speed of relearning
also reveals memory.
4. Tests of recognition and of time spent relearning demonstrate that
we remember more than we can recall.
B. Memory Models
1. Psychologists create memory models to help one think about how one’s
brain forms retrieves memories. An information-processing model likens
human memory to computer operations. To remember any event:
a) Get information into our brain, the process is called encoding
b) Retain that information, a process called storage
c) Later get the information back out, a process called retrieval
2. A human’s memories are less literal and more fragile than a computer’s
3. The agile brain processes many things all at once by means of parallel
4. Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these
a) Every time one learns something new, the brain’s neural
connections change. This will form and strengthen pathways that
allow you to interact with and learn from your constantly changing
5. The three stage-model of memories forming:
a) We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting
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