Hist 1051 Sec. 003
Chapter 17 Outline—Industrial America: Corporations and Conflicts
A. Andrew Carnegie came to America from Scotland as a poor 12-year-old and made a life for
himself working for the Pennsylvania Railroad.
B. He built a massive steel mill and soon Steel became a major U.S industry.
C. Carnegie left his business in the hands of Clay Frick and went back to Scotland while Frick
dealt with the union battling for their jobs.
The Rise of Big Business
In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, Industrialization was booming. More jobs we’re being created
and on average, people were making more money.
A. Innovators in Enterprise
-Rail lines began having issues with communication due to the amount of mileage a
superintendent was required to cover. People worked to overcome these problems
-The U.S economy was booming by 1900 and most of the population had converted to
electric power. Utilization of fossil fuels began.
1. Productions and Sales
i.) Gustavus Swift created found a better way to ship, slaughter, and store meat.
ii.) Swift put the animal by-products to good use by turning them into fertilizer.
iii.) Utilized predatory pricing: cutting prices until competitors went under and then
raising prices again.
2. Standard Oil and the Rise of the Trusts
i.) John D. Rockefeller went into the Kerosene business and within a few years was
a leading provider.
ii.) Rockefeller also used predatory pricing to make failing competitors merge with
his business, nearly monopolizing the industry by the 1880’s.
3. Assessing the Industrialists
i.) The work of early industrialists is controversial.
ii.) The formation of this economy should not be accredited to just a few
individuals, however famous or influential they may have been. 4. A National Consumer Culture
i.) Companies began investing in more research materials.
ii.) Big department stores like Macy’s developed, tempting consumers.
iii.) Mail-order companies formed.
iv.) By 1900, companies were spending more than $90 million per year on
advertisements and people began subscribing to magazines.
B. The Corporate Workplace
- There grew a difference between white-collar workers (those with professional
positions) versus blue-collar workers (employees who labored with their hands).
1. Managers and Salesmen
i.) Middle management started to appear in the work place.
ii.) New sales forces were needed and so began nationwide distribution networks.
iii.) Sales goals were created to motivated employees.
iv.) America entered the era of the “hard sell.”
2. Women in the Corporate Office
i.) Large corporations began assigning secretarial work to women instead of men.
ii.) Women began shifting from working at home to working in office settings or
iii.) Many women found themselves as telephone operators after the invention of
the telephone came about by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
C. On the Shop Floor
- Many workers began working as what were essentially independent contractors.
- Industrialization advanced and everything was beginning to be manufactured by
- Blue-collar workers resisted standardized working conditions, prompting an intense
debate of inequality.
1. Health Hazards and Pollution
i.) Health and safety in the workplace became a growing concern.
Chapter 17 Outline—Industrial America: Corporations and Conflicts Page 2 of 5 ii.) It became apparent that many jobs were polluting the environment as well.
2. Unskilled Labor and Discrimination
i.) Women defended their right to work as men ridiculed them.
ii.) Child labor became a problem.
iii.) Racial and prejudicial inequalities were also a problem.
Immigrants, East and West
The rise of industrialization and the lure of jobs brought in immigrants from all over the world.
Americans viewed the immigrants with hostility in the workplace.
A. New Comers from Europe
-The Potato famine caused many Wes