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COM 100 (3)
Chapter 11

COM 100 Chapter 11: Ch.11 notes

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Elon University
COM 100
William Anderson

Advertising and Commercial Culture ● Product placement: the purchase of spaces for particular goods to appear in a TV show, movie, or music video ● Market researchers routinely weight consumers’ tolerance-how long an ad or how many ads they are willing to tolerate to get “free” media content 1. Early Developments in American Advertising ● By the mid 19th century though most magazines contained ads and most publishers started magazines hoping to earn advertising dollars ● Land sales, transportation announcements (stagecoach and ship schedules), and “runaways” (ads placed by farm and plantation owners whose slaves had feld) A. The First Advertising Agencies ● In the US, national advertising, which initially focused on patent medicines, didn't start in earnest until the 1850s when railroads linking the East coast to the mississippi river valley began carrying newspapers, etc. across the country ● Space brokers: individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants B. Advertising in the 1800s ● 1890: 1st full-service modern ad agency N.W. Ayer & Son ● The more ads an agency placed, the larger the agency’s revenue ● Agencies had little incentive to buy fewer ads on behalf of their clients Trademarks and Packaging ● Advertising let manufactures establish a special identity for their products, separate from those of their competitors ● Studies suggest that although most ads are not very effective in the short run, over time they create demand by leading consumers to associate particular brands with quality Patent Medicines and Department Stores ● ⅙of all print ads came from patent medicine and drug companies ● The role of the publisher changed from being a seller of a product to consumers to being a gatherer of consumers for the advertisers ● Early 1890s: more than 20% of ad space was devoted to department stores ● With increased money spent on individualized service, department store chains undercut small local stores and put more of their profits into ads Advertising’s Impact on Newspapers ● Continuous-process machinery kept company factories operating at peak efficient, helping produce and abundance of inexpensive packaged consumer goods ● Mid 1800s: 70-75% news and editorial material and only 25-30% advertisements ● Early 1900s: more than half the space in daily papers was devoted to advertising C. Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values ● Significantly influenced the transition from a producer-directed to a consumer-driven society ● Promoted technological advances by showing how new machines could improve daily life ● Advertising encouraged economic growth by increasing sales Appealing to Female Consumers ● Emphasized stereotyped appeals to women believing that simple ads with emotional and even irrational content worked best ● Female consumers feel good about defeating life’s problems Dealing with Criticism ● Criticism of advertising grew as the industry appeared to be dictating values as well as driving the economy ● War Advertising Council- a voluntary group of agencies and advertisers that organized war bond sales, blood donor drives, and the rationing of scarce goods D. Early Ad Regulation ● Advertisers wanted a formal service that tracked newspapers readership guaranteed accurate audience measures, and ensured that papers would not overcharge ad agencies and their clients ● Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) ● Subliminal messaging: hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register the subconscious and fool people into buying products 2. The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today ● Slogan: the phrase that attempts to sell a product by capturing its essence in words A. The Influence on Visual Design ● Early 1970s: agencies had developed teams of writers and artists, thus granting equal status to images and words in the creative process ● Rapid edits, creative camera angles, compressed narrative, and stages performances (MTV) ● The Web became a mass medium in the 1990s TV and print designs often mimicked the drop-down menu of computer interfaces B. Types of Advertising Agencies ● Mega-agencies: large ad firms that formed by merging several agencies and that maintain regional offices worldwide ● Boutique agencies: devote their talents to only a handful of select clients Mega-Agencies ● 2013: Omnicom and Publicis announced a merger that would have created world’s largest mega-agency ● WPP Group grew quickly in the 1980s with the purchases of J. Walter Thompson the largest US as firm at the time Boutique Agencies ● Offering more personal services the boutiques prospered bolstered by innovative ad campaigns increasing profits from TV accounts ● Peterson Milla Hooks (PMH) C. The Structure of Ad Agencies Account Planning, Market Research, and VALS ● Account planners coordinate market research to assess behaviors and attitudes of consumers toward particular products long before any ads are created ● Earliest type of market research, demographics, mainly studied and documented audience members’ age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, education, and income ● Psychographics: a research approach that attempts to categorize consumers according to their attitudes, beliefs, interests, and motivations ● Focus groups: small-group interview technique in which a moderator leads a discussion about a product or an issue, usually with 6-12 people ● Values and Lifestyles (VALS): assumes that not every product suits every consumer and encourages advertisers to vary their sales slants to find market niches Creative Development ● The creative department outlines the rough sketches for print and online ads and then develops the words and graphics ● Storyboard: a sort of blueprint roughly drawn comic-strip version of the potential ad ● Viral marketing: short videos or other content that quickly gains widespread attention as users share it with friends online or by word of mouth ● Associating certain products over time with quality and reliability in the minds of consumers Media Coordination: Planning and Placing Advertising ● Media buyers: people who choose and purchase the types of media that are best suited to carry a client's ads, reach the targeted audience, and measure the effectiveness of those ads placements ● Add incentive clauses to their contracts with agencies, raising the fee if sales goals are met and lowering it if goals are missed ● Saturation
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