BSC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Emergence, Inductive Reasoning, Hierarchical Organization

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Published on 29 Jan 2017
School
FIU
Department
Biological Science
Course
BSC 1010
Professor
Blue text = taken from lecture
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology
Biology: study of life
Biology compasses all STEMscience, technology, engineering, math
Unifying themes in Biology:
Cell theory: a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms
and also the basic unit of reproduction.
Molecular inheritance: refers to genes and DNA
Structure and Function
Diversity via evolutionary change
Unity via evolutionary change
Cells are computers
Emergent properties of life
7 Characteristics of Life
Cellular organization
Ordered complexity
Sensitivity
Growth, development, and reproduction
Energy utilization
Homeostasis
Evolutionary adaptation
Hierarchical organization
Cellular level
Atoms: fundamental elements of matter
Molecules: clusters of atoms
Organelles: tiny structures made up of molecules
Cells: basic unit of life
Organismal level
Tissues: groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit
Organs: body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit
Organs system: group of organs
Population level
Population: group of organisms of the same species living in the same place
Species: members similar in appearance and able to inbreed
Biological community: consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place
Ecosystem level
Ecosystem: biological community and the physical habitat within which it lives together
Biosphere (our planet)
Emergent properties result from the way in which components interact, and they often cannot be deduced just from looking at the
parts themselves
much of science is purely descriptive
biology is concerned with arriving at an increasingly accurate description of nature
deductive reasoning applies general principles to predict specific results
is the reasoning used in math and philosophy
used to test the validity of general ideas in all branches of knowledge
o used to infer species of a specimen from it characteristics
inductive reasoning the logic flows in the opposite direction (specific to general)
uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles
leads to generalizations that can be tested
became important in 1600s (used by Isaac Newton)
hypothesis: a suggested explanation that accounts for those observations
those that have not been proven are retained
can be changes and refined with new data
testing a hypothesis is an experiment
a successful experiment is one in which one or more of the alternative hypotheses is demonstrated to inconsistent with the
result and is thus rejected
variables influence processes
o to evaluate alternative hypotheses about one variable, all other variables must be kept constant
In the test experiment one variable is altered in a known way to test a particular hypothesis
In the control experiment that variable is left unaltered
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Document Summary

Biology compasses all stem science, technology, engineering, math. Cell theory: a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. Molecular inheritance: refers to genes and dna. Organelles: tiny structures made up of molecules. Tissues: groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit. Organs: body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit. Population: group of organisms of the same species living in the same place. Species: members similar in appearance and able to inbreed. Biological community: consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place. Ecosystem: biological community and the physical habitat within which it lives together. Emergent properties result from the way in which components interact, and they often cannot be deduced just from looking at the parts themselves.

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