BSC-1005 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Gene Expression Profiling, Personalized Medicine

Biological Science
Course Code
G.Bates, G.Erickson, S.Lenhert, C.Schultz, H.Tang, C.Schultz

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BSC1005- SB
Florida State University
Textbook Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8:
Biomedical Applications
Biomedical Applications
The most established application for synthetic biomaterials is the
pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical drug (or medicine) is any chemical
substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or
prevention of disease.
Antibiotics were one of the first biomolecules to be discovered and eventually
synthesized. An antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills bacteria or
inhibits their growth. Discovery and synthesis of antibiotics have provided
general cures for multiple diseases.
First natural antibiotic discovered was penicillin, attributed to Alexander
Fleming in 1928.
Ability to rapidly and cheaply read a patient’s DNA sequence would allow
significant improvements in the diagnosis of disease and application of the
appropriate treatments. A trial and error approach is often taken due to
differences in patients.
Knowledge of a particular patient’s state at the molecular level would allow
personalized medicine, or a medical model emphasizing the systematic
use of information about an individual patient to select or optimize that
patient’s preventative and therapeutic care.
DNA sequencing is a method used for determining the order of the
nucleotides bases- A, T, C and G- in a molecule of DNA.
Technique used to read a sequence in a molecule that is just 2
nanometers wide is called the Sanger Method. Similar to the modified
version of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to extend fragments of an
unknown DNA sequence.
A new technique to read DNA sequences is a single molecular-based
idea, involving the passing of a DNA strand through a nanopore and
directly read the sequence electronically- single-molecule sequencing.
Gene expression profiling is another approach for the diagnosis and
treatment of diseases for personalized medicine. A knowledge of what genes
are being expressed can provide information about the current state of a
biological organism.
Technology used for this is based on DNA microarrays, which are chips
that contain a multitude of different short DNA sequences.
Advantage of protein microarrays over more traditional methods is
that multiple tests can be carried out on a single chip.
Concept of carrying out more than one test simultaneously in
diagnostics is known as multiplexing.
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