CHM 1020 Chapter 1: Chapter 1 Summary

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8 Feb 2017
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Chapter 1- Matter, Measuring, and Problem Solving Summary
Hemoglobin
Protein Hb found in red blood cells that reacts with O₂. Hemoglobin enhances the amount of
O₂ carried through the bloodstream. The Hb represents the entire protein- is it not a chemical
formula.
Atoms and Molecules
The properties of matter are determined by the atoms and molecules that composed it. Atoms
are subatomic particles and they are the fundamental building blocks of all matter. Molecules are
two or more atoms attached together; these attachments are called bonds and they come in
different strengths; Molecules come in different shapes and sizes. Chemistry is the science that
seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules.
From Observation to Understanding
Hypothesis is a tentative explanation or interpretation of an observation. When similar
observations are consistently being made it can lead to a Scientific Law which is a statement of
behavior that is always observed, summarizes past observations and predicts future ones. E.g.
Law of conservation of mass.
From Specific to General Understanding
A hypothesis works as a potential explanation for a single or small number of observations. A
theory is a general explanation for the manifestation and behavior of all nature. E.g. Models,
pinnacle of scientific knowledge.
Classification of Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter may be solid, liquid, or gas. Matter
may be classified by their physical characteristics.
State
Shape
Volume
Compress
Flow
Solid
Fixed
Fixed
No
No
Liquid
Indefinite
Fixed
No
Yes
Gas
Indefinite
Indefinite
Yes
Yes
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Solids
The particles are packed close together and are fixed in position (they may vibrate). They are
incompressible and unable to move around which gives them their definite shape. There exist
two types of solid: Crystalline solids these are arranged in an orderly geometric pattern. E.g. Salt
and diamonds. Amorphous solids these particles are randomly distributed without any long-
range pattern. E.g. plastic, glass, charcoal.
Liquids
The particles are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around. The close packing
results in liquids being incompressible they do not have freedom to escape and expand to fill
the shape of a container.
Gases
The particles have complete freedom from each other. There is a lot of empty space between the
particles on average. They are compressible because they expand to fill and take the shape of
their container.
Classification of Matter by Composition
Matter may be a pure substance meaning made of one type of particle, all samples show the same
intensive properties doesn’t change when some sample is taken away or may be a mixture
meaning made of multiple types of particles and samples may show different intensive
properties.
Pure Substances:
Elements: Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
They are composed of a single type of atom and these atoms may or may not be combined into
molecules. Compounds: Substances made of two or moles different elements and can be
decomposed. Composed of molecules that contain two or more different kinds of atoms. All
molecules of a compound are identical, so all samples of a compound behave the same way.
Mixtures:
Homogeneous: mixture that has uniform composition throughout. Every piece of sample has
identical characteristics, though another sample with same components may have different
characteristics. Atoms or molecules mixed uniformly. Heterogeneous: mixture that does not have
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