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Chapter 3

CGS-2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Sri International, Robert Cailliau


Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CGS-2100
Professor
Melina Vastola
Chapter
3

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CGS2100 Chapter 3: Using the Internet Making the Most of the
We’s Resoues Notes
The Internet and How it Works
Iteet: a etok of etoks that’s the lagest etok i the old, oetig illios of oputes
globally
The Origin of the Internet
Why was the internet created?
o Establishing a secure form of communications and creating a means by which all computers could
communicate
Created in the late 1950s during the Cold War
Who invented the internet?
o Modern internet came from U.S. gov-fuded pojet: Adaed Reseah Pojets Agey Netok
ARPANET
UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University
of Utah
First communication, 1969: between Stanford and UCLA
o Vito Cef ad Roet Kah: fathes of the iteet
In the 1970s they were primarily responsible for developing the communications protocols
(standards) still in use on the internet today
So are the web and the internet the same thing?
o World Wide Web (WWW, or web): the part of the internet used the most; only a subset of the internet
dedicated to broadcasting HTML pages
The web is based on the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
o What distinguishes the web from the rest of the internet:
1. Common communications protocols that enable computers to talk to each other and display
information in compatible formats
2. Special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another
Who created the web?
o Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau (1991) wanted a place to make research documents available to
others
Web Browser: software installed on a computer system that allows individuals to locate, view,
and navigate the web
First web browser could only handle text
1993: Mosaic browser, can handle graphics and text
o Netsape Naigato: eoled fo Mosai, the egiig of the e’s goth
How does the internet work?
A opute ats i 2 ays: eithe its a client or a server
o Client: a computer that asks for data
o Server: a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client
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o Client/server network: a type of network that uses servers to deliver services to computers that are
requesting them (clients)
Internet backbone: the main pathway of high-speed communications lines which over all internet traffic flows
How do computers talk to each other?
o The data euest fo the liet’s opute is set ia iteet pathays to the see; the sever
interprets the request and sends back the data requested
How does the data get sent to the right computer?
o Internet Protocol (IP) address: the means by which all computers connected to the internet identify each
other; consists of a unique set of 4 groups of numbers separated by dots, such as 123.45.178.91 (dotted
quad, dotted decimal)
Communicating and Collaborating on the Web
Web 2.0: tools and web-based services that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users
o Classified as the soial e
o Social media: web 2.0 communication which includes social networking, blogs, wikis, podcasts and
webcasts
Electronic mail (e-mail): internet-based communication in which senders and recipients correspond
o Most widely used form of communication on the internet
Social Networking
Who has’t head of Faeook o soial etokig?
o Social networking: a means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information
among their immediate friends and to meet and connect with others through common interests,
experiences, and friends
How is social networking used in business?
o Instead of networking in person, social networking sites like LinkedIn allow people to meet prospective
employers and see open job listings on the internet
o Businesses also may use social networking to market themselves (doing promos on Facebook, etc.)
What ae soe do’s ad do’t’s of soial etokig?
o Keep your personal information personal
o Ko ho you fieds ae, ad ho a see the ifoatio that you’e postig; update privacy
settings often
o Do not post about things that could be the answer to a security question (i.e. the name of your favorite
teacher or first pet)
o Use caution when posting images and be aware of what others are posting about you
Types of social networking sites
o Social exchange networks: allow users to connect with others, provide status updates
Ex.: Facebook
o Create your own social networks: allow users to create their own social network around a common
topic; can be public or private
Ex.: ning.com
o Business-related social networks: allow users to seek potential clients, business opportunities, jobs, or
job candidates
Ex.: LinkedIn
o Media sharing networks: allow users to share pictures or videos
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