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Chapter 2

CGS-2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Readwrite, Consumer Reports, Hdmi

Computer Science
Course Code
Melina Vastola

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1. CGS2100: Chapter 2- Understanding Digital Components Notes
Understanding Your Computer
Computers are Data Processing Devices
A computer is a data-processing device that performs four functions:
oInput: gathers data, or allows users to enter data
oProcess: manipulates, calculates, or organizes data into information
oOutput: displays data and information in a form suitable for the user
oStorage: saves information for later use
Data vs. Information
oData: a representation of a fact, figure, or idea
Can be a number, word, picture, recording of a sound
oInformation: data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion
How do computers interact with data and information?
oComputers process (manipulate, calculate, or organize) data into information
Student ID card example: going to the Student ID center, giving the clerk your personal
information (data), your picture being taken (collecting more data), printing ID card
Bits and Bytes: the Language of Computers
Computers work only with numbers
oBinary language: the language computers use to process data into information, consisting of only the
values 0 and 1
Binary digit, “bit”: each 0 or 1
8 binary digits = one “byte”
oEx.: the letter “K” = 01001011 (one byte, 8 bits)
What else can bits and bytes be used for?
oUsed to represent the quantity of data and information that the computer inputs and outputs
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oUnits of measure for bytes
Kilobyte (KB) = ~1,000 bytes
Megabyte (MB) = ~1 mil. bytes
Gigabyte (GB) = ~1 bil. bytes
Terabyte (TB) = ~1 tril. bites
Petabyte (PB) = ~1,000 terabytes
Google search engine = 1 PB per hour
How does your computer process bits and bytes?
oHardware and software
Hardware: any part of the computer or computer system that you can physically touch
Software: the set of computer programs that allows the hardware to work
Application software: the set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out
tasks such as word processing, sending an e-mail, balancing a budget, creating
presentations, editing a photo, taking an online course, or playing video games
System software: the set of programs that enables a computer’s hardware devices and
application software to work together; includes operating system and utility programs
oOperating system: the system software that controls the way in which a
computer system functions, including the management of software, peripherals,
and software
Most common type of system software
Types of Computers
What types of computers are popular for personal use?
oTablet computer: a mobile computer integrated into a flat multitouch-sensitive screen; uses an onscreen
virtual keyboard, but separate keyboards can be connected through Bluetooth or wires
Ex.: Apple iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab
oLaptop/notebook computer: a portable computer with a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices
integrated into a single compact case
oNetbook: a small, lightweight (<2 lbs.) portable laptop that is 7-10 inches wide and has a longer batter
life than a laptop; sacrifices portability for performance
oUltrabook: a full-featured, lightweight laptop that features a low-power processor and a solid-state
drive; tries to reduce size and weight to extend battery life w/out sacrificing performance
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oTablet (convertible) PC: similar to a laptop computer but swivels to fold flat; functions as a conventional
laptop and a touchscreen computer
oDesktop computer: a computer that is intended for use in a single location; consists of a case that
houses the main components of the computer, plus peripheral devices
System unit: the metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together,
including the computer’s processor (brain), memory, and circuit boards that allow the computer
to function
Peripheral device: a device such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard that connects to the system
through a data port
oAll-in-one computer: a desktop system unit that houses the processor, memory, and monitor in a single
Are there other types of computers?
oMainframe: a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously
and executes many different programs at the same time
oSupercomputer: a specially designed computer that cam perform complex calculations extremely
rapidly; used in situations in which complex models requiring intensive mathematical calculations are
oEmbedded computer: a specially designed computer chip that resides inside another device, such as a
car; have their own programming and typically neither receive input from users nor interact with other
oSmartphones: a device with the features of a computer including a wide assortment of apps, media
players, high quality cameras, and web activity
Input Devices
Input device: a hardware device used to enter, or input, data (texts, images, and sounds) and instructions (user
responses and commands) into a computer.
oKeyboard: an input device that you use to enter typed data and commands
oMouse: an input device used to enter user responses and commands
oStylus: an input device that looks like a pen, which you use to tap commands or draw on a screen
What is the most common way to input data and commands?
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