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AMH 2020 (4)


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AMH 2020
Tarah Luke

American History: Post Reconstruction Chapter 16 Emancipation: the act of freeing from slavery or bondage o Goal shared by slaves and abolitionists alike that occurred with the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865 New South: vision of the South, promoted after the Civil War by Henry Grady who urged the South to abandon its independence on agriculture and use its cheap labor and natural resources to compete with northern industry o Many northerners invested in the New South industries such as textiles, cotton, and railroads Reconstruction plan (Abraham Lincoln): felt that it was an executive responsibility—it was imperative that the plan focused on national unity by the means of a quick, forgiving political reconciliation o Plan did not guarantee black rights. The former slaves, were only guaranteed the right to not be slave o Gave a speech on March 4, 1865 (second inaugural speech) he aimed his plan strictly at ending the war and slavery Reconstruction plan (Congress): felt that it was completely its jurisdiction—more concerned with the white loyalty and an assurance of black rights o Wouldn’t allow representatives from “Lincoln states” to sit in Congress if his state did not agree to acknowledge the new freedoms of the blacks Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction: issued in December 1863 by Lincoln proposed a full pardon to rebels willing to renounce secession and to attempt emancipation o Pardons were valuable because it returned all lost property (excluding slaves) and full political rights Reconstruction plan (Andrew Johnson): stressed reconciliation between the Union and the Confederacy and a rapid reconciliation between the two. He then went as far as pardoning ex-Confederates and returning their previously owned land despite that it was sometimes owned by the Freedmen’s Bureau—favored states rights Wade-Davis Bill: a bill proposed by Henry Winter Davis and Benjamin Wade that demanded half of the voters in a conquered rebel state take the oath of allegiance before Reconstruction could begin o Banned all ex-Confederates from participating in the drafting of the new state constitutions and guaranteed the equality of the freemen before the law Suffrage: the right to vote Free labor: work conducted free from constraint and in accordance with the laborer’s personal inclinations and will o Was at the heart of the argument that Northerners had for the pushing of slavery into the western territories Planters: owners of large farms (plantations, specifically) that were worked by by twenty or more slaves o By 1860, they had acquired a large portion of the political power in the southern states and even managed to convince some of the white voters the ways that slavery benefited all whites, including those who did not own slaves Antebellum: a term that means “before a war” and commonly refers to the period prior to the civil war o Referring to the specific group of southern whites, many had deliberately kept black illiterate and uneducated, despite the freemen’s efforts to learn o Many blacks in the union army learned to read and write during the Civil War Liberty: the condition of being free or enjoying freedom from control o Also refers to the possession of certain social, political, or economical rights such as the right to vote or own property State’s rights: a strict interpretation of the Constitution that holds federal power over the states is limited and that the states hold the ultimate sovereignty o Cornerstone for the South’s resistance to slaveryidea that the states are to permit whether the constitutionality of the federal government’s actions Black codes: southern state government laws that subjected the freemen subordinate to the white men o Despite the fact that some of the blacks were wealthy, educated, and/or refined they were denied the right to vote Conservative: a political and moral outlook dating back to Alexander Hamilton’s belief in a strong central government resting on a solid banking foundation Civil Rights Act of 1865: created by the moderates to nullify the black codes o Done so by affirming African Americans’ rights “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by the white citizen.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony : founded the American Equal Rights Association in 1866 lobbied for a government for the people and the whole people o Advocated for black men/ women and white women’s rights o Pointed out to congress that women was the only population who was truly unrepresented in Congress Disfranchisement: the denial of suffrage to a group or individual through legality measures o Most common form of this practice was the poll taxes and literacy tests Democracy: a system of government in
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