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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 4 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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Florida State University
DEP 3103

Chapter 4  Development in infancy • Infancy → The average North American newborn is ⇒ 20 inches long ⇒ 7 ½ lbs → Most newborns lose 5% to 7% of their body weight in the first several days of life (mother’s milk doesn’t come in right at birth) → Newborns double their weight by 4 months and almost triple it in a year • Enormous change in a short period of time → Infancy spans the first year → Start: immobile organism with a set of reflexes → End: coordinated movement across multiple senses → Involves both development of musculature and brain development → View changed over last century ⇒ Old view: passive, incompetent ⇒ New view: actively relate to world, competent – refined methods  Newborn reflexes • Reflex: inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation • newborn’s most obvious organized patterns of behavior • can reveal the health of a baby’s nervous system → Early warning damage to cerebral cortex • Some form the basis for later motor skills → Ex. – tonic neck reflex, palmer grasp, swimming and stepping • Reflexes are adaptive → Survival value ⇒ Still useful; useful in evolutionary past • Development of reflexes → Social reflexes? ⇒ Smiling: within first week purely reflex whenever they see human faces; purposeful by few months old; elicits caregiving, to make you give them the things that they need ⇒ Grasping: you think it’s them saying “I love you”  Newborn states • 5 states of arousal → Regular sleep (8-9 hours): deep, restful sleep; no movement → Irregular sleep (8-9 hours): REM, moving → Drowsiness (varies): transition between being awake and being asleep → Quiet alertness (2-3 hours): just sitting quietly and observing their environment, lots of learning → Waking activity and crying (1-4 hours): doing activities and just being fussy • Sleep patterns → Between birth and 2 years, sleep and wakefulness patterns change ⇒ Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2 ⇒ Sleep-wake patterns begin conforming to a circadian rhythm → Arousal patterns are affected by brain development and cultural practices → Patterns have implications for early cognitive progress; disturbed sleep patterns are more likely/underlying cause is central nervous system issues and they’re more likely to die from Sudden Death Syndrome → Sleep (16-18 hours/day) “back to sleep” ⇒ % REM sleep vs. nREM sleep • Fetus = 80% • Newborn = 50% • Adult = 20% ⇒ Autostimulation theory: Boismeyer checkerboard theory • What if REM sleep compensates for the lack of visual stimulation infants have? What if during the waking hours, we bombarded them with visual stimulus? → Showed them the Boismeyer checkerboard; quiet alertness vs. not given checkerboard; then tested sleep patterns; those who saw the checkerboard, had less REM sleep • REM sleep is not restful, it’s more likely that they will wake up during this sleep; you can trigger your child to have lots of environmental stimulation and then “trick” them into getting that stimulation when they’re awake so they sleep deeper  Crying • First way that babies communicate → Stimulates strong feelings of arousal and discomfort in both men and women; elicits caregiving ⇒ Adaptive value – nothing can get a parent to go to their child quicker than it screaming → Young infants most often cry because of hunger • Typically increase during the early weeks, peaks at about 6 weeks, and then declines → Due to normal readjustments of the central nervous system • Soothing → Cultural differences ⇒ U.S. carrying study; African cultures where babies were carried all day spent less time crying that in North America and other countries; assigned some kids to be carried all day long and some not; those who were carried
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