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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 3 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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Florida State University
DEP 3103

Chapter 3 – Biological foundations, prenatal development, and birth  Chromosomes, Cells, and Sex: Terminology • Autosomes- the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes rd • Sex chromosomes: 23 pair of chromosomes; determine sex; XX = female, XY = male • Gametes/Sex cells: sperm and ova • Zygote: sperm and ovum united ; zygote period (first 2 weeks after conception)  Genomic imprinting and mutation • Imprinting: → Mother’s or father’s alleles are chemically marked and thus activated → Often temporary • Mutation → Sudden change in a DNA segment → Permanent  Polygenetic inheritance • Characteristics inherited on a continuum → Height, weight, intelligence, personality • Determined by many genes that form a nice distribution  The course of prenatal development • Prenatal development → Lasts approximately 38 weeks → Begins with fertilization → Ends with birth → Divided into three periods ⇒ Zygote: 2 weeks – fertilization; implantation; start of placenta ⇒ Embryo: 6 weeks – arms, legs, face, organs, muscles all develop; heart begins beating (most growth happens in this time) ⇒ Fetus: 30 weeks – “growth and finishing” • Fertilization → Attachment to the uterine wall ⇒ Rapid cell division • Stem cells at work ⇒ Formation of • Blastocyst → Stem cells which make person • Trophoblast → Cells which make placenta • Endoblast → Make up inner-cell mass that attaches to cell wall • Period of the zygote → Lasts two weeks th th ⇒ Implantation occurs between 7 and 9 day ⇒ Protective amnion develops → Chorion – protective membrane which surrounds amnion → Placenta – permits food and water to reach developing organism, carries waste away → Umbilical cord – delivers blood • Period of the embryo → Last half of first month ⇒ Ectoderm – will become nervous system in the skin ⇒ Mesoderm – becomes the muscles, skeleton, and circulatory system ⇒ Endoderm – digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands ⇒ Neurons → Second month ⇒ (MOST CHANGE) rapid growth: eyes, ears, nose, jaws, neck ⇒ Buds become arms, legs, fingers, toes ⇒ Responds to touch • Fetal period (9 week – birth) → “growing and finishing” phase → Third month ⇒ Lungs begin to expand and contract ⇒ Behavioral capacities: kick, bend its arms, open and close its hands and mouth and suck its thumb ⇒ Sex is evident on ultrasound ⇒ Systems are starting to connect (in the right order) ⇒ Sexual differentiation • Sex of baby determined at 12 week • XX = female; XY = male • All fetuses are “female” until 7 week • The Y chromosome activates “testes determining factor” → Male genitalia • For XX fetuses, absence of androgen → Girl genitalia → The second trimester ⇒ Mother can feel movements ⇒ Vernix, lanugo, glial cells ⇒ Brain weight increases tenfold from twentieth week until birth → The third trimester ⇒ Age of viability: between 22 and 26 weeks ⇒ Cerebral cortex enlarges ⇒ Fetus spends more time awake → Birth ⇒ 3 stages of birth • 1 stage → Uterine contracts; contractions start → Cervix dilates → “transition”: final part, when contractions at greatest intensity → Usually around 16-24hrs • 2 stage → Head begins to move → Baby is “expulsed”
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