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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 1 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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DEP 3103
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Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Applied Directions  What is child development? • Child development: a field devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence • Part of developmental science field → Field covers lifespan • Scientific and applied → Less of a basic science • Interdisciplinary → Difficult to define because it, by nature, looks at other fields of psychology and their research; “change across the lifespan in cognitive psychology”  Periods of development • Prenatal: conception to birth → Time of most rapid change; turns from cells to a little human • Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to 2 years → Traumatic changes in the body and brain; emergences of variety of motor, social, and cognitive behaviors; perceptions get better; language starts forming; social connections start forming • Early childhood: 2 to 6 years → Kids really come into their own; bodies get longer and leaner; motor skills get better; maybe starting to run; they can grab things; make believe gets more intricate; sense of morality; children start to make friends • Middle childhood: 6 to 11 years → Children learn about the world outside of just them; look more like adults; more capable and active; schooling • Adolescence: 11 to 18 years → Marked by puberty; adult sized body, sexual maturity; thinking becomes more abstract; schooling becomes about what you’re going to do next; you establish autonomy from your family; you establish your own goals and values • (Adulthood: 18 to 25 years)  Domains of development • Physical → Body size, proportions, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health • Cognitive → Attention, memory, knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and language • Emotional and social → Self-understanding, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior  Theory • Theory: an orderly, integrated, evidence-based set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior; provide a sound basis for practical action, put us in a much better position to know the welfare of children  Basic issues in development • 1. Continuous of discontinuous? → Continuous: gradual build up from previous behaviors; quantitative development → Discontinuous: (stage theorists) not a gradual build up, one behavior comes out of nowhere- rapid transformation as they step up to the next stage; qualitative development • 2. One course of development or many? → One course: endorsed by stage theorists; everyone develops in the same time in the same way → Many: endorsed by contemporary theorists; most people believe things happen in this way; emphasizes the individuality of us and the way we develop; there are many different sources that influence the way we develop ⇒ Influenced by contexts of development (Individual differences) • Unique combinations result in different paths of development (personal contexts – heredity and biological makeup) • Environmental contexts (immediate: home, school, neighborhood; macro: community resources, historical time period, societal values, culture) • 3. Nature or nurture? → Nature: based on genetic inheritance; theories that stress nature emphasize stability (one course of development lines up with this) → Nurture: physical and social world (e.g. environments); theories that stress nurture emphasize change/plasticity  Historical views of childhood • Medieval times → Childhood viewed as separate period of life → Age 7 considered “age of reason” and expected to work alongside adults; expected to hold jobs just like adults → Even back then, there were laws that protected children from their own behavior • The Reformation → Children seen as innately evil (original sin- you were born with the sin of Adam and Eve); only through really strict parenting could you get rid of that sin → Discipline was harsh → First ones to create writings specifically for children; believed that they could educate children differently from adults • Transition to modern thinking → 17 and 18 century philosophers → Locke (1632-1704) ⇒ Tabula rasa – blank slate; we are born good ⇒ Parents could raise children through structure, praise, and rewards; children should be treated with kindness and respect, believed that what happens to you when you’re young is important to shaping you as an adult ⇒ Focused on role of environment and experience; education makes the man ⇒ Social approval/disapproval are powerful shapers of behavior ⇒ Association: association of ideas when young is most important foundation of self → Rousseau (1712-1778) ⇒ Noble savage: children are inherently good, society corrupts them; they are born with a sense of right and wrong ⇒ Born ready to learn and mature (active) ⇒ Would naturally develop into moral adults; adults need to be receptive to child’s needs ⇒ Introduced ideas of stages and maturation (infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence) → Darwin (1809-1882) ⇒ Theory of evolution ⇒ Documenting behavior • Kept a “baby biography” of infant son → Writings about every single thing that his child was doing from infancy on • Became popular in late 1700’s → Hall (1844-1924) ⇒ First American psychologist ⇒ Credited with the founding of child development as an academic discipline ⇒ Believed in maturational development  nature ⇒ Launched the normative approach – “typical” development, everyone goes through the same stages of development ⇒ Gesell • Took Hall’s research and wrote to parents telling them what to expect → Binet and Simon (1857-1911) ⇒ Developed first standardized intelligence testing to help identify academically “at risk” school children in France → Baldwin (1861-1934) ⇒ Nature and nurture have equal importance and are interwoven • Mid-20 century theories → Mid-1900’s child development expanded into a legitimate discipline ⇒ Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) – est. 1933 → Theories emerged with contrasting emphases ⇒ Inner thoughts and feelings (Europe) ⇒ Scientific precision and observable behavior (N. America) → Psychoanalytic perspective ⇒ Freud (1856-1939) • Psychosexual theory → How parents manage child’s sexual and aggressive drives is crucial for healthy personality development  to be more successful in childhood, your parents have to help you through those stages → Fixation : if you have issues as an adult, it’s likely because you didn’t move past the biological tension in society at one point in your life ⇒ Oral stage (birth1 year): a. Sexual interests- sucking, swallowing, biting b. Effects of fixation: lasting concerns with dependence and independence; pleasure from eating, drinking, and other oral activities ⇒ Anal stage (13 years): a. Sexual interests – expelling feces, retaining feces b. Orderliness or sloppiness, stinginess or wastefulness, stubbornness ⇒ Phallic stage (35/6 years): a. Touching penis or clitoris; Oedipus complex b. Difficulty feeling cl
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