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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 7 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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DEP 3103
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Chapter 7: An Information-Processing Perspective  Information-Processing Perspective • Mind is a complex symbol-mapping system → Encoding: bring in information → Recoding: switching it around so it can be used/processed → Decoding : interprets the meaning of the symbol by comparing and combining it with other information  Store model • Store information in three parts → Sensory register → Working/short term memory → Long term memory • As information flows through the system, we use mental strategies to operate on and transform  Development of information processing • Increases in three broad areas → Basic capacity (esp. working memory) – amount of information you can store gets bigger as you get older ⇒ Socioeconomic status: those in lower SES areas are presented with more information than they can hold → Speed of processing: develops and gets faster ⇒ Means that older children (esp. adults) get much better at holding that information → Executive functioning: Quality; set of operations you have that help you organize your thoughts/processing; more able to focus your attention; better able to come up with good strategies to remember information  Neo-Piagetian Perspective • Accepts Piaget’s stages • Also suggest change within each stage and allows for the more biologically based brain system within those stages → Due to increases in working-memory capacity ⇒ Brain development: happened naturally ⇒ Practice with schemes and automization ⇒ Central conceptual structure formation : networks of concepts and relations that allow them to think about more wide ranged situations in more advanced ways  Siegler’s model of strategy choice • Evolutionary perspective → When given problem, generate many strategies to solve → With experience, strategies are selected, become more frequent, and “survive” – we realize which strategies work the best → Therefore, we adapt our strategies choice, natural selection – we choose the strategy we generally use and the others die out → Uses Microgenetic method…strategy change occurs in short periods of time other methods miss • Example → Children who produce speech-gesture mismatches are in a transitional state, which is a sign they are ready to learn ⇒ Indicates a shift in strategy to solve problem → Parents and teachers can use children’s gestures to provide instruction at the most opportune moment ⇒ Match: speech and gesture are the same, student sees no issue with their answer ⇒ Mismatch: speech and gesture do not exactly match, student is ready to learn  Types of Attention • Development of Sustained Attention- giving your attention to something even if it’s not novel or new → Increases sharply between 2 and 3 ½ years ⇒ Frontal lobe growth ⇒ More complex play goals ⇒ Adult scaffolding • Selective: when you get older, you’re able to flexibly adapt your attention to different things/ what you need; being able to manipulate and realize what pieces of information you need to attend to • Cognitive Inhibition (adaptive) → Ability to control distracting stimuli ⇒ Internal – thoughts ⇒ External – distractions → Improves from infancy on ⇒ Gains on complex tasks from middle childhood to adolescence → Development of adaptive attention strategies ⇒ Emerge and are refined during 4 phases • 1. Production deficiency • 2. Control deficiency- they can produce but not all the time • 3. Utilization deficiency- kids use strategies more consistently but performance does not improve or improves much less than older kids • 4. Effective strategy use- using strategies consistently, performance improves; when you realize a strategy isn’t working for you, you pick something else  Memory • Rehearsal: a strategy that includes repeating information to yourself • Organization: grouping related items • Elaboration: more complex; middle childhood; creating a relationship between 2 or more pieces of information that do not belong in the same category  Culture, schooling, and memory strategies • Everyday use grouping may help to remember objects → Western schooling gives little practice in spatial location techniques – people aren’t generally good with maps and stuff  Memory: retrieving information • Recognition and recall: simple information → Recognition: ⇒ Noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one
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