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Psychology (87)
DEP 3103 (12)
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Chapter

Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 8 - I got a 4.0 in the course

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
DEP 3103
Professor
All

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 What is intelligence? • Hard to define; easier to just list traits  What are the characteristics of an intelligent person at – • Age 2: → Vocab, ability to communicate → Response to potential request and questions → Understanding numbers (basic) • Age 50: → Continued curiosity → Quickly adapt to change → Extensive knowledge → Intelligence and wisdom become less separable  Researchers are trying to find a singular definition of intelligence across the life span • Reasoning, understanding in new information • Intelligence changes with age • Verbal ability, practice problems solving  Process vs. product focus • Process- the process of learning • Product – psychometric approach → Concerned with outcomes and results  Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon • First successful intelligence test (1905) • Beginning of universal public education → Identity children needing special classes • Influenced verbal and nonverbal items • First test to match item difficulty with chronological use → Allowed comparison with agemates  Modeling intelligence • Spearman (statistics) → Test items corrected with one another → Proposes (g) ⇒ G = abstract reasoning capacity → Specific intelligence ⇒ Variability not due to “g” • Thunstone found separate, unrelated factors • Current views combine hierarchical models → G at the highest level ⇒ Present in all factors → Fluid and Crystalized Intelligence ⇒ Fluid: • Depends on basic intelligence processing skills • Detecting relationships among stimuli • Analytical speed • Working memory ⇒ Crystalized: • Skills that depend on → Accumulated knowledge → Experience → Good judgment → Mastery of social connections • Valued by person’s culture  Stennbergs Triarchic Theory → Analytical Intelligence → Creative intelligence → Practical intelligence • Believes “intelligence” is too narrow • Underestimates strengths of some, complexity of intelligence  Bardner’s Multiple intelligence • 8 independent intelligences → 1. Linguistic → 2. Logical – mathematical → 3. Musical → 4. Spatial → 5. Bodily – kinesthetic → 6. Naturalistic → 7. Interpersonal → 8. Intrapersonal  Types of tests • Aptitude tests- asses your potential to learn • Achievement tests- aim to assess your knowledge → Differences are not clean cut, most combine  Tests for infants • Challenging- babies can’t answer; not always cooperative • Screen- identify infants likely to have development problems • Emphasize perceptual and motor responses → Prediction of later mental ability → Newer – Bayley – III includes cognitive • Labeled – Developmental Quotients (IQ)  Interpreting scores • IQ = (mental age)/(chronological age) • allows comparisons with age mates • 80 vs. 100 vs. 115 → possible through standardization ⇒ score – normal curve ⇒ Mean is 100; most of the population fall within 1 s.d. of the mean (85/115)  Stability of IQ scores • Correlational Stability → Compares how children score relative to age-mates, from one time to the next → Better correlations ⇒ When tests are close together ( Age 6&7 = .55, Age 6&9 = .45, Age 6&12=.40) ⇒ When older at first testing → Age 6 (after start school)  more stable ⇒ Test items similar to school activities • Why? A kid who hasn’t been in school yet isn’t used to having to sit in a seat for a long amount of time/listen to one person/answer questions when asked/etc. • Absolute scores → Examines same child’s profile of scores over repeated testings – if they get 100 at one point in time, will they get that same score later? → Most children fluctuate ⇒ Typically 10-20 points during childhood and adolescence → Some either increase or decrease with age  IQ as a predictor • Academic achievement → Correlated with achievement test scores, grades, staying in school → Range .40s-.80s  typically .50-.60 → Age 7 – moderate correlation with a
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