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Child Psychology [CHAPTER NOTES] Part 9 - I got a 4.0 in the course

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DEP 3103
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Chapter 9 – Language Development  What is language? • Components of language → Phonology – how speech is made up of different sounds/different words ⇒ Rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds → Semantics – understanding how words go together and the meanings → Grammar – two components ⇒ Syntax – rules by which words are arranged into sentences (subject, verb, clauses) ⇒ Morphology – linguistic units that indicate: • Number (cat, cats • Tense • Gender (masculine and feminine endings) • Active or passive voice (she bit = active; was bitten = passive) → Pragmatics – rules of communication ⇒ Taking turns ⇒ Stay on topic  Theories of language development • Nativist Perspective (Chomsky) → Language Acquisition Device (LAD) ⇒ Rules of grammar are too complicated for children to learn on their own ⇒ There’s an inborn system that helps children learn language → Supporting evidence ⇒ Localization of brain function • Language function housed in left hemisphere → Wernicke (right) – assigning comprehension to words → Broca (left) – ability to pronounce words • Aphasias: loss of ability; aphasia in Broca’s led to loss of ability to pronounce – they could write or read but not pronounce; aphasia in Wernicke led to loss of comprehension – they think what they’re saying makes sense “the fridge is on the deck of the car” • Some components of language may be more localized than others (grammar) ⇒ Sensitive periods of development • Studies of deaf individuals and second language learning • Time of language acquisition influences ability level → Limitations ⇒ No clear understanding of Universal Grammar ⇒ Brain localization • Evidence that Broca’s and Wernicke’s are not solely responsible for specific language functions • Interconnectedness of brain regions • Compensation in other regions not commonly associated with language → Sensitive periods ⇒ Understanding of grammatical rules is piecemeal • Utilizes experimentation d • Interactionist perspective → Information processing theories ⇒ Connectionist models • Simulations of neural networks programmed with grammar learning procedures • Some ability to acquire simple language rules • Hard to model neural networks • Lack of generalization to children’s ability ⇒ Interactionist perspective • Social interactionist theories → Children desire to understand and be understood → Use social interaction in rich language environments to discover functions and regularities of language  Prelinguistic Development • Native versus Non-native speech → Phoneme differences exist across languages • Adult speech → Infant-Directed speech (IDS) ⇒ “baby talk” – actually helps them learn the differences between phonemes → Speech sounds ⇒ Cooing/babbling ⇒ Builds musculature for speech → Joint attention ⇒ Initialize eye contact ⇒ Follow adult gaze ⇒ Pointing • Protodeclarative • Protoimperative  Phonological development • Early phase • Initial words influenced by number of sounds (phonemes) children can make • Approx. 1 year of age • Errors are often made in this stage → Substitutions (words with similar starting sounds) → Mispronunciations (initial, middle, or ending sounds left off) • Shift from whole syllables to individual sounds • Later phonological development → Most PD completed by age 5 → PD can last through adolescence  Semantic development • Comprehension develops ahead of production • Earliest words don’t involve inanimate objects (or rarely do) → People, animals, food, familiar actions/outcomes (hug), social terms (hi, bye, please) • Initial vocabulary learning is slow (1-3/week) • Increase to 1-2 words/day by approx. 2 years → Gradual over time (Ganger and Brent, 2004) • What leads to this increase in vocabulary knowledge? → Novel experiences (more interactions, more objects, more actions) → Improved understanding of others’ intentions (Theory of Mind) – understanding more what happens to others, thinking more from other people’s perspectives → Neural development ⇒ Fast-mapping: can connect a word with its underlying concept after only a brief encounter • Young children → Referential style: words that refer to object ⇒ Majority → Expressive style: more social words – thank you, please → Culture influence: Asian languages focus more on social routines (expressive – Asian vs. American – referential) • 3 types of words → Object/action words → State words ⇒ Big, small, tall, short, etc. • Underextension of words: → Word used in limited scope (tree=only one oak tree in their backyard) • Overextension of words: → Everything that is not the oak tree is a bush • Influences of semantic development → Memory ⇒ Fast-mapping is supported by a phonological store  Semantic Development (Dr. Hart’s notes) • 12 month’s-ish: first words → Holophrase- one word to represent more complex phrases → Characteristics ⇒ Names (“Ball”), action words (“allgone”) ⇒ Social words (“bye-bye”) ⇒ Routine words (“lunch”) ⇒ Modifiers (“hot”) → Underextensions: one word refers to one thing alone (shoes = their shoes and their shoes alone) → Overextensions: they’ll use one word to refer to a bunch of other things (dog=every living thing they see around them) ⇒ “Picture pointing” study • Showed pictures of a bunch o
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